Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Bdm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Bdm - Essay Example8.561357.77005Inter-quartile sick (IQR) The median happens to be in the middle of the sorted data. Similarly the first quartile can be defined as 1/4 of the way through the sorted data, and the triad quartile to be 3/4 of the way through the sorted data. Second quartile is also known as the median. The range between the first and third quartiles includes half(a) of the data. The size of the range (i.e., the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile) is another measurement of divergence called the inter-quartile range or IQR. For normally distributed data IQR = 1.35 From the above calculations it appears the reorganization exercise has not been a grand success. though it appears to have tightened some loose ends but still the average output remains the same.Task-3Table-2 Annual volume of sales revenue & advertising expenditure for SarnesCo (000s)Period123456789101112Sales Revenue cytosine130 one hundred sixty175180xcl190180220250255260Advert ising expenditure1012121213131314151516163 period moving averages for sales A3 = (160+130+100)/3 = 390/3 = 130A4 = (175+160+130)/3 = 465/3 = 155A5 = (180+175+160)/3 = 515/3 = 171.67A6 = (190+180+175)/3 = 545/3 = 181.67A7 = (190+190+180)/3 = 560/3 = 186.67A8 = (180+190+190)/3 = 560/3 = 186.67A9 = (220+180+190)/3 = 590/3 = 196.67A10 = (250+220+180)/3 = 650/3 = 216.67A11 = (255+250+220)/3 = 725/3 = 241.67A12 = (260+255+250)/3 = 765/3 = 2554 period moving averages for sales(it can be calculated similarly as above)A4 = Task-4Task- 5 Business PresentationMaterial for the presentationSarnesCo, the manufacturer of machinery for the material industry, wants to improve its assembly crimpSarnesCo appoints consultant, who in turn study the assembly...The range between the first and third quartiles includes half of the data. The size of the range (i.e., the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile) is another measurement of variability called the inter-quartile range or IQR . For normally distributed dataTaking a look at the mean, median figures of the turnout efficiency before and after the implementation of these steps, it is quite apparent that the consultants have not been able to improve the assembly line as much as desired by the company.

Monday, April 29, 2019

Trade Area Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Trade Area Analysis - Essay poserThe website selected should also be strategic and make accessibility of other utilities like energy easy. density of a assembly line to the market is also an important factor to necessitate as this go away find redeeming(prenominal) accessibility of the commodities by the customers. A good site pull up stakes lead to the success of the business. at that place are several factors that champion should consider in order to come up with the best site of the business to be started. The main(prenominal) factor to take into consideration is the kind of business venture that one wants to start. The site selected should favor the efficient production activities like the good imparting of goods in and out of the business exposit. The production costs should be minimized and this will lead to the success of the business. The accessibility of the business premises is vital due to the transportation of the goods to the customers. According to Gitry ( 1996), the selected site should be easily accessible to both the buyers and suppliers (Norton, 2011). In Toronto area, transport has been well established for the accessibility of the rising stores to be set. Before selecting the best site, it is advisable to suppose at the transport means available in the area. There are good roads in Toronto area and this favors the flow of goods in and out of the stores in Toronto area. The good roads in the area are vital in the transportation of goods out of the stores in the region to the customers. The transport also ensures the accessibility of the stores by the employees in the region. This ensures the employees get to their places of work on time. For transportation purposes, one of the best sites to set a new store in Toronto area is along the Wilson Avenue. This site is best due to a number of factors the main one being the good transport network around the area. The good transport network will favor the flow of goods in and out of th e new store to be set. This will ensure the goods founder the customers on time and inn then right condition. The good transport in the region outhouse act as a good attraction factor to potential customers in the area. This is because the good roads make the site selected accessible to many buyers in the region. This will increase the revenues and lead to expansion of the stores. The good transport also favors the accessibility of the public utilities like the banks. This will favor the flow of business activities in the region. The accessibility of the stores is also vital in case of an emergency like fire outbreak. The good transport will ensure that emergency services reach the stores on time to avoid huge losses in case of an emergency (Glenn, 2009, pg 118). Population an area is another important factor that one should consider when coming up with a business site. Customers should be in plenty in the area selected. hence a densely populated area is a good site to choose as customers will be available to buy the goods in the stores. In Toronto area, there are some regions that are worthy to set up new stores because they have a considerably high population (Norton, 2011). The big population will create a good pool of labor hence smooth flow of activities in the stores. The high population will also ensure there is a good number of a potential customer to purchase goods from the stores. This will ensure a continuous flow of activitie

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Is Volunteering Valuable for Youth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is Volunteering Valuable for Youth - Essay ExampleA billionaire may give millions for construction of theater for flood victims, but might not be present on the ground. On the different hand, a youthful tender may not be giving bills, but may offer his/her efforts to supporter in the reconstruction. Consequently, volunteers will be able to see the problems on the ground level and give notice the soberness of the situation better than anyone else. One of the reasons why youths should volunteer is because most of them do not shoot money or stuff to give to the disadvantaged. Low income kids love to volunteer just as much as the others and given a chance they can take place actively, since they may apply been recipients of giving they appreciate and understand the importance of doing the same to others (Clemmitt 88). A student, in as much as he would wish well to help homeless deal he may not afford to give them money since he may also be badly in need of it. Herein, it shall be undertaken to prove volunteering is very invaluable to the youth. According to Molly in a study on volunteering carried out for the Nevada University, the youths who take part in volunteer work are 50 % less likely to use/abuse drugs, abuse alcohol, or get unplanned pregnancies (Latham pg. 2 Para 4). As mentioned earlier, volunteers donate era which they spend performing diametrical duties such as helping in the kitchen or working in an old peoples home or hospice. Youths who are engaged in such activities will find themselves fully occupy in body and mind thus, they will have no motivation or cause to collect themselves in drug abuse and other vices. Most people use drugs to fill a blank shell in their lives and others because of boredom because of being unoccupied for long periods. However, this will not happen to youths who dedicate their time and effort to helping the less fortunate, or participating in worthy causes through volunteering. They will have a safe avenue t o put into work their extra energy to use. Furthermore, the experiences they encounter in the furrow of their volunteering may bring out their emotions through sadness and empathy, hence, helping them to express themselves and purge their negative emotions without resorting to self-destructive behavior often characteristic of worldy youths. The pressures placed upon youths today by their demanding work and education schedules have led to increase in cases of mental problems like depression and other mental illness. These pressures can speck to a variety of mental illnesses like depression that in turn leads to youths feeling oppressed and alienated. However, if youths volunteer to assist disadvantaged kids and homeless people, they are able to see their problems in a better perspective. by volunteer work, youths often interact with people who have had to live in hardships and near intolerable lives. Similarly, whatever of the students in Tulane are quite privileged working with the poor and less fortunate makes them experience the challenges other have to go through in person (Clemmitt 85). This enables the youths to appreciate themselves and realize they are other people with bigger problems than theirs. Moreover, People who volunteer feel optimistic about life especially when they get to go on the terrible straits of others this makes them consider themselves to be blessed and lucky (Leones 5). This is analogous to the adage about the man who leant to appreciate life when he was complaining that he had no

Saturday, April 27, 2019

BMW and UN Global Compact Principles Case Study - 4

BMW and UN Global Compact Principles - Case Study ExampleIt is manifestly clear from the discussion that the long experience and exposure of manufacturing such a high quality proceeds has earned a respectable status for us in comparison with the several competitor motorcar manufacturing corporations, on the foundations of which our partnership is in a position to establish suggestions and recommendations to the Local Network regarding the strict observe of the UN Global Compact principles while exercising corporate strategies and observing business activitiesJohnson & Scholes suggest that strategy locution might apparently be obtained through the analysis of the organizations environment and the ex 10t to which the companys resources or strategic capability are matched with the environment. (1993 156). Our company looks for the unconditional observing of moral value and corporate ethics on the basis of Global Compact principles in order to provide the consumers the top-notch commodities on the one hand and best and healthy competitive corporate environment on the other. capital of South Carolina University Press views that corporate ethics feature developed as people have reflected on the intentions and consequences of their acts. From this materialisation on the nature of benignant behavior, theories of conscience have developed, giving direction too much respectable thinking. (cup.edu.com) BMW motorcar has devised the slogan of sheer driving pleasure because of its unique outlook, comfortable inside accessories and unparalleled garnishing, which have won the status of one of the most demanded automobiles by the elite stratum of all countries. Bidgoli argues that international markets run vast opportunities for firms with a reaping or service in high demand. Newness, cultural adaptation, attractiveness, and appropriate selling strategies can help tremendously. (2009, 9) The same is applied to BMW, which adopt all schemes in light of all the ten UN corporate principles. The present paper focuses on Principles No. 7 & 8, recommended by the UN Global Compact, which state (7). Businesses should domiciliate a precautionary approach to environmental challenges (8). Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility. (unglobalcompact.org) BMW fulfills both of them in their real sense. BMW adopts the Evolutionary corporate perspective articulated by Whittington. The process vehemently looks for the gradual human growth on the basis of Darwinian biological evolution theory Survival of the Fittest, where the notion warns the companies regarding the creation of perfect competition prevailing in the market only those can survive who are the fittest check to the changing scenario and latest developments being made within the environment. In other words, the industries that are environmental-friendly as rise as able enough to mold their strategies according to the alterations being made in the commercial environm ent, make sure headway on the way to progress. Recommendations i) Establishment of Corporate Environment with an Evolutionary Perspective Benefits & Implications a. Automobile community can assure its survival provided it sticks to the Darwinian doctrine of adaptability according to the changes within the environment. The companies should be advance to devise and revise their strategies keeping in view the global market scenario. b. Our companys plans and schemes shew the light of hope to the network members, where they learn the implementation of dichotomous business policies by cut-short of expenditures and price of product subsequently to make it affordable for consumers.

Friday, April 26, 2019

Casuals by Steve Madden - summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Casuals by Steve Madden - summary - Essay ExampleThis is one of the reasons as to why casuals came into the grocery store. They see to it that the heel is folded into a flat when it is not needed (Simmons 1). SWOT Analysis The product has concentrated on several factors that have ensured it has actively and wholly penetrated the market. It has paid heed to its strengths in the fashion diligence. The strengths include localise oriented approach for the customers, community and their employees. In relation to their employees, the company has ensured that they have the space to conduct their activities in the company. This ensures that they come with new strategies for the company, ensuring maximized profits (Simmons 1). They give back to the community as part of their corporate neighborly responsibility and this augurs well with the community that surrounds them. As for their clients, they have created this classic yet comfortable lifestyle that some(prenominal) ladies have crav ed for in the fashion industry. The aspect of versatility and convenience is an added advantage as the shoe asshole be used for any occasion. This has led to the fact that many clients ar aware of the shoes instauration and they love it. One of the major weaknesses noted lies on the limited style ranges of the shoe. This is because of the limited capacity to comprise different shoe ranges into the specific design in question. Another weakness is pegged on the fact that issues of overture are limited to retail and online stores. This reduces the stores general revenue collected. The opportunities for the product lie in the broad market segment that is targeted by the product. The population of women who are looking for elegant style and comfort provide a wide array of potential consumers. The fact that the convertible shoe is new in the fashion industry creates the platform that many consumers will want to sample the new product in the fashion line. The founding is threatened b y competitors from other shoe companies. The companies are either adopting the same strategy or incorporating trustworthy aspects and features that are giving the company a run for its money. The fashion industry is a very maverick industry (Kotler 12). The issue of economic and fashion trends are constantly hampering the way that the company plans to meet its forget me drug goals and objectives. These are the two threats to the creative innovation of elegant but stylish shoes that have been brought into the market. Segmentation, Targeting and location The product has segmented the market based on the concentrated marketing strategy. This is the strategy that ensures that each and all(prenominal) aspect of the market is segmented and dealt with. It has concentrated on women and their willingness to spend to access the product. This is based on demographic segmentation. The market has also segmented based on the ability to arouse the risk taking spirit of many in the fashion i ndustry. This forms the psychographic aspect of independent women who love to take risks at each and every point. The benefit oriented segmentation approach is based on the women who know the benefits of wearing a heel at the right time and getting comfortable when they need to. This is without the excess baggage of carrying an additional couple up of shoes. This segmentation works hand in hand with the geo demographic segmentation. This is the specific one that targets the specific women who are in the profile areas. They include the women in

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Read intructions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Read intructions - Essay ExampleRacial slurs can actually become a source of empowering the victimized individuals and groups. They can learn to value their individuality and their peculiar characteristics that differentiate them from others. By valuing their enculturation and norms, they can perhaps throw away others see that they might be different and unique, but in no way inferior or outcasts.It is therefore important to understand that it is up to the person who hears the word to make out positive or negative con nonations. Optimism always helps- especially if adept is surrounded by difficulties and hatred. It is not until a person realizes that his/her survival is at stake, when he/she decides either to depend it or to give up. Those who face it are empowered by racial slurs, while those who give up get internally racist. ego examination and education have been the main factors of changing the mindset of the Black and Chink communities, which in debate changed the mentalit y of the oppressive communities. Education has changed the life style and the social status of the Blacks and Chinks. The contemporary society of US has to a great extent veritable the abilities of such communities who were victims of racism who have struggled to make a undecomposed place in the educational institutions, white collar professions and the main stream work force.Hence, they are accepted in the educational institutions and in all white collar professions, and respected for their hard work and braveness to stand up to the racist slurs barked at them. This was however, not the case a few decades ago, when the oppressed communities had restrain scope and horizon to take part as respectable or equal human beings in the betterment of the society. A Black US president demonstrates the evolution of the thinking pattern of the American people. It is one example how the oppressed communities derived strength from the

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Political influence of different racial politicians Essay

Political influence of different racial politicians - Essay ExampleThis method will be efficient in narrowing the vast area of study to few hypotheses that can be use to substantiate the main hypothesis. This method involves study and research but omits interviews that may give misleading information. besides the method does not take a lot of time and it can be carried out in fewer phases. This makes it very easy to allocate time to analysis and elimination of non essential materials. This will table service in making an accurate assessment on the main hypothesis. This method will also put up for sampling of many materials that may lead to the accurate conclusion of views and reasons in accordance to the hypothesis. The statistical sexual climax in this will involve quantitative research which will be em closureed with two approaches the mould and principlesThe process the examination will have one or more speculations. These are the inquiries that they need to incubate which i ncorporate forecasts about conceivable connections between the things they need to research (variables). Keeping in mind the end goal to discover replies to these inquiries, the exploration will additionally have different instruments and materials and a plainly characterized understanding of movement. The principles Objectivity is exceptionally vital in quantitative exploration. Subsequently, specialists take incredible forethought to dodge their vicinity, engineer or demeanor influencing the results. They likewise basically inspect their strategies and conclusions for any conceivable predisposition.

Chinese new year Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chinese new year - Essay ExampleAn analytical explanation of the Chinese New Year festivities establishes the validity of this statement.The Chinese New Year is lunar, commencing on the first day of the new year containing a new moon and concluding fourteen days subsequent with the Latern festival. Years rotate in accordance with both a 12-year round of drinks of animal zodiacs and a 10-year cycle of ethereal stems, in addition to bi-annual rotating stems. The animal zodiacs are comprised of the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig. The fixingss consist of Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water and the heavenly stems are ying and yang. This means that depending on the date, the new year assumed the name of an animal, a particular element and is categorized as ying or yang. Within the context of Chinese culture and religious belief, the nature of a year determines ones fortunes, depending on whether or not it is in harmony with ones birth year (Ki, 2005).As preferably noted, the Chinese new year unfolds over a fourteen day period, calculated by nigh as fifteen since preparations commence on the day before.

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

The Terror of Rwandan Genocide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Terror of Rwandan Genocide - Essay ExampleThe first step of genocide, classification, has been taking place for years before the genocide even started. Long into Rwandas history had there been a distinct ethnic difference between the two rival factions, the Hutu and the Tutsis. In the late 1800s, it was the Tutsi people who had enslaved the Hutus in a feudal system, with the Hutus working the land under the supervision of Tutsi landlords. After World War One, however, this tout ensemble came to change. When Rwanda was granted self-government from Belgium in 1959, the elections led the Hutu majority into power over the government, and this could be seen as cardinal of the first steps towards the later genocide. The distinct differences had already been in place, and now the oppressed Hutus had political accountant over their ancient landlords. (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_GenocideBackground). The next few steps toward the genocide all in all began to happen quickly. A s Tutsi refugees began to decant in Rwanda in the 1990s, the Hutu majority began to become afraid of the past enslavement. The Hutu government broadcast and published significant referring to the Tutsi as subhuman and making veiled calls for violence. Radical Hutu groups, organized and funded by outgrowths of the government, started to amass weapons and conduct instruct programs (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_GenocideBackground). This was an utilization of symbolization, by making and targeting all the members of the Tutsi group, dehumanization, by denying the humanity of the Tutsi and declaring them subhuman, and this was also a prime example of organization and polarization, which both continued to happen as the genocide began. There is also quite a bit of evidence that the killings were organized even by the government and government leaders. One cabinet member was quoted in saying that she was personally in favor of getting rid of all Tutsi without the Tutsi, she told ministers, all of Rwandas problems would be over (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_GenocideBackground). This shows just how deep into the country the hatred for the Tutsi people ran and was accepted. After the assignation of the president of Rwanda, the shite finally broke, and the genocide began. The military began rounding up all the Tutsi they could and slaughtering them, a sign of preparation as they began to mass weapons and dispatch the militia, and then finally as they began to round up and murder the Tutsi. Within hours, recruits were dispatched all over the country to carry out a wave of slaughter,( http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ macrocosm/africa/1288230.stm) as the people of Rwanda prepared for one of the most brutal and shocking genocides the world had seen since the Holocaust.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Ponzi Schemes And Madoff's Fraud Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ponzi Schemes And Madoffs pasquinade - Essay Example5. Although some investors were not aware that their currency was put in Madoffs funds, they must likewise be considered victims because their bills was invested for the purpose of achieving high returns, yet this did not materialize.5. Although some investors were not aware that their money was put in Madoffs funds, they must also be considered victims because their money was invested for the purpose of achieving high returns, yet this did not materialize.6. Investors with Bernard Madoff should pose checked out his claims of providing high returns by getting advice from multiple money managers. This would have ensured that an honourable opinion could be formed as a result and possibly the money would never have been invested in Madoffs scheme.Summary of How Madoff Did It Victims AccountsAn Unending Performance Madoff was the type of person who could display self-control yet was able to terrify other people into giving him wh at he wanted. The reason that he was able to fool people for so long is due to his mastery of impression management. Madoff was a controlling figure who liked to keep the surpass from his victims this explains how he was able to conceal his crimes for so long. Madoffs sometimes random behavior only added to his intrigue because it do people wanted to invest so they could be considered privileged.Accumulated Advantage Although it is well-documented that many people lost money as a result of Madoffs scheme, there were some people who made quite a dish out of money.

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Writing in the Content Areas Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 12

Writing in the Content Areas - ad hominem Statement ExampleDuring the business of my side of meat 101 category, we learned how to read attentively, how to write a thoughtful paper, and how to write a rush in context essay. Frankly, I noticed English 101, was easy for me my teacher was really easy on us, and we were not at all fixed out of our comfort zones. At that particular time, I reflected how fortuitously getting easy grades for a little hard report. I was astonished for this result because throughout senior high school, I always considered college English was going to be much trickier during the course of my English 101 category, we learned how to read attentively, how to write a reflective paper, and how to write a passage in context essay. Frankly, I noticed English 101, was easy for me my instructor was really easy on us, and we were not at all fixed out of our comfort zones. At that particular time, I reflected how fortunately getting easy grades for a little hard work. I was astonished for this result because, throughout high school, I always considered college English was going to be much trickier Now that with English 101 had ended, I had a task with English 102. Probably due to my approach towards my English 101 category, I deliberated English 102 was going to be alike. I was totally wrong. I can bear in mind the original few days of the course group. The emotion of being prone to the harsh and abrupt reality that I really had to work extremely hard this semester. Uncomfortable at first, I slowly caught on to the expeditious but the well-organized pace my teacher had set for us. Even though there was an incredible amount of work this time, I reflect back now with a smile. I feel confident now that I could write a victorious essay. I possibly have learned nearly all active writing in present this one semester, then my whole academic profession. In my outlook, I go for to take all of the skills I have learned during my English courses.

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Analysis of Food Journalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Analysis of Food Journalism - Essay ExampleSince it directly questions the production extremity of fare as well as the technology which is used to produce such foods besides discussing otherwise main(prenominal) issues, food journalism very much makes consumer choices wider and provide them a pricy insureing of how to make good and well-informed choices. (Lumby & Probyn, 2003).The situation provided in the case study requires a clear understanding of the ethical practices that food journalist must adapt and the roles and responsibilities of the journalists as well as the persons/businesses that have been highlighted as the violators of the law. Journalists are often assumed to go far to the stretch to a point where they have the legal cover and exemption to do. Thus it is important that journalists must understand the ethical consequences of their actions and report on various issues.Before discussing the case, it is important that a general overview of the code of practice is presented so that a broader picture can be constructed to understand the practical situation provided in the given case study.One of the most important aspects of the code is the attention of the highest level of professionalism and requires that journalist must present only such information which is accurate and can be verifiable. What is also significant to note that the code further allows that if a journalist makes the in repair statement, it becomes the ethical indebtedness of the journalist to either correct the information presented with an opportunity to reply.1Considering the situation provided in the case study, it is important that adept must first become certain that the story published against the Thai Restaurant owner is correct and not an act of revenge and vandalism.

Friday, April 19, 2019

Digital Media Platforms and Education Assignment - 10

Digital Media Platforms and Education - Assignment poserIt was important to analyze this in order to come up with all the causes of international warming and a solution to the problems its causes. It has previously been understood that human actions contribute a lot to global warming. However, I install out that the extent to which human CO2 factors into the total CO2 generated by planet earth on a yearly basis is alone four part. This was quite informative and changed my way of looking at the whole issue (Archer, 29). This fact does not relieve humans of their responsibility towards the planet. Instead, it helps in putting into spatial relation the precise scope of the problem and the means by which it should be rectified.From my research, it has been scientifically proven that it is not only CO2 levels that determine global temperature but even the sun and the worlds oceans do. The oceans seventy percent coverage of the earths surface gives them a profound effect on regulatin g our global systems temperature. Scientists have likewise recently proven that the global temperature levels have been dictated by the worlds oceans more so than was previously recognized. This is due to a number of observations (Archer, 49).I also packed that technology has contributed to new inventions and learning greatly. Digital media promote new technologies that enrich learning abilities and modify for better skills like in the case of music. Communication has been made easier and more interesting even in classrooms. The rise of social media platforms has enabled me and other people exchange ideas and learn from each other. Digital media has also enabled me and my friends take in and share information that has been helpful both academically and socially. My experience during this course was great and I got to learn about different devices used and how to use them effectively. (Archer, 57).

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Church Construction Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Church Construction pick up - Assignment ExampleThe selection of property to accommodate the perform must commensurate the number of tidy sum in the church and the finance they are sure-footed of raising to buy the church premises.We need a church for 600-700 people. We are placed in a busy suburb of a very(prenominal) plumping city. Ide altogethery, we may settle for a hall that accommodates around a 1000 people. The hall could be located in a mercantile area or residential place. The strength is in the cost because it is affordable. It is keep mum to the houses of most members. If we get the complete floor in a commercial complex, we also get privacy. The weaknesses are that we will not have the church hall completely to ourselves. We will have to observe the rules and regulations of the commercial society and restrain the volume of our sound when we sing hymns and choruses.We now meet in a give lessons hall. The hall is huge and is capable of accommodating 1000 members. It admeasures 7,000 square feet. The school building is strong and is capable of bearing the strain of 5,000 people in the entire floor. I am not aware of any(prenominal) squelch point in the school hall. The hall is such that it can bear pressure from all sides. There is no threat to it from human source, that is, it cannot suffer any harm from purely human strength.If pressure points are meant to be columns, beams and floors, the school is a kingdom plus four floor affair. Its floor place is about 20,000 square feet. So, considering all the floors, the total floor space is 100,000 square feet. The school has columns and beams and appears to be of big-chested construction.Discover how the last major construction project in your church was financed. How did this project correspond to what you letteredIt is about five years since our church was established. We have not faced any situation of a major construction project in our church. We have grown numerically and in zeal. We are salt away funds for our own church premises. There is no problem so far as finance is concerned. We have enough money to finance a purchase. There is a steering committee which is knotty in huntinging for the property.At any rate, I attended a different church forrader five years. This church has a regular church building consisting of the main church hall on the ground floor, and more halls for church programs on the three upper floors. The main church on the ground floor had high ceiling, almost double the size of the halls on the three upper floors.This church was very old. They had broken down the old single floor building some forty years agone and converted it into a building with ground plus the three upper floors. The finance for this building came from donations by the church members and more finance from the diocesan. No loan was taken. Interview a pastor or church staff member that has recently been involved in a major church construction project. carry him about how closely they followed the safe borrowing limits suggested in this lesson. Record your findings in your notebook.Most churches in my contribution have a policy to not borrow money from banks or any financial institutions. They search for donations and grants. If they need loan, they may take it from well-known

The Gulf of Tonkin incident Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The Gulf of Tonkin incident - Essay ExampleThe mutual disbelieve of the allies against each other resulted into great animosity and gave rise to war tendencies. It led to the arms and missiles dry wash between USA and Soviet Russia. Neither sides fought a direct war against each other, considering the appalling consequences, just they constantly fought for control and power through their proxy countries. Devastating effects of these proxy wars can allay be observed world over. The cold war proceeded through Berlin Blockade, Korean fight, Vietnam War, Cuban Missile Crisis, and Soviet-Afghan War and on. Each of these wars had its disastrous and long running effects on the world history. Vietnam War amongst these proved to be a non-repairable mistake for the States in the long run.In the cold war era America suffered severe set defends in its war against communism. Ex Cuban incident, Berlin wall, military losses in Laos. It was becoming highly important to re-establish Americas pos ition on the world map. Irrespective of this, for years historians have debated Americas entry and position in seemingly hopeless situation such as Vietnam War. With this loss of face against communism, since Kennedy administration, it became all the more inherent for President Lyndon Johnson to prove himself as a warrior against of peace which he projected himself as, throughout the Gulf of Tonkin crisis.The transcendental mission of patrolling on North Vietnam coast was undertaken and was named as Desoto by the Pentagon. On 31st of July 1964, American ruiner USS Maddox began electronic intelligence collection mission in the Gulf of Tonkin. On 2nd of August Maddox claimed that it was attacked by the North Vietnam P4 patrol torpedo boats in international waters. However the Maddox claimed to evade the torpedo attacks and had to fire back in order to defend itself. Maddox suffered very minor damages in the attack. It claimed that out of the three North-Vietnamese patrol boats, one has sunk and the other has been heavily damaged. Maddox was later joined by some other destroyer turner Joy in South Vietnamese waters. Second AttackOn 4th of August Maddox launched another Desoto patrol on the coast of North Vietnam. Turner Joy was overly accompanying Maddox. The destroyers claimed to have authentic signals indicating attack from the North Vietnamese navy. The firing went on for 2 hours targets based on radar and radiocommunication signals and electronic and visual reports of the enemy. Captain Herrick sent in his message sent to Washington suggested, Review of effect makes many reported contacts, and torpedoes fired to be doubtful. Freak weather effects on radar and overeager sonar men may have accounted for many reports. No actual visual sightings by Maddox. raise completed evaluation of the situation before any action is taken *. Herrick also recommended a positive review of the situation before any decision or action to be implemented. He also stated t hat there could have been misunderstanding due to weather creation highly unstable and unclear. The reports of torpedoes being fired were also doubtful as the torpedoes were heard and not seen. Chances were the sound of torpedoes could have been sound of the propeller, which was mistaken. two

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Depend on the movie Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Depend on the movie - Essay ExampleThe idea of benignant inner fear to look differently and stand out against a background is shown in the Nipponese movie Shall We Dance? by Masayuki Suo. This film tells a story about happily married accountant, who starts to get hold himself discontent with his current life. Everyday for Shohei Sugiyama seems to be a little piece of routine, which he knows by heart. acquire tired of insipid life, he enrolls in a dance school. Mr. Sugiyamas doubts and embarrassments of his new liking stub be seen in episode, when he reads an article about waltz stealthily from his family. The prejudice of being unconceivable for others compels him to backup in a secret his new hobby. It seems to Shohei that it is abnormal to go for dancing, when you are a grown-up and so high-priced person as he is. However, interest and desire to change something in his life conquers all inconveniencies. From the scratch minutes of watching this movie you can conclude that Shohei is rather successful person, having nice work position, family, good relationships with wife. But the thing is that Mr. Sugiyama faces the situation, when his days turn into casualty without any changes and suddenly the man begins to feel low gear and aggravation.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Hinduism Essay Example for Free

Hinduism canvasHinduism is the religion of the great majority of the people of India. The word comes from the Sanskrit sindhu, river, and origin all in ally referred to the Indus. Hinduism is actually a collection of galore(postnominal) native Indian religions, past and present. It is responsible for the social structure of India, especially for the caste system (a transmitted class system). The oldest of the worlds great religions, Hinduism is the only one without a founder. It has never tried to earn converts by force and has always tolerated other religions and absorbed ideas from them. Hinduism has about 20 sects, with beliefs that range from primitive forms of animism to the highest r apiecees of religious mysticism and philosophy. Many of the sects and cults seem to be separate religions. Yet all have a family relationship since they springiness from common traditions and thrive on the conditions peculiar to India. Most have a mystic strain and all stress nonviolence. Describe the major tenets of the Hindu belief system. Hinduism has many spiritual objects and places. The cow is the most sacred of animals and must be protected.Most sacred of all places is the Ganges River, to which millions go each year to bathe and to become purified. Hindus believe in rebirth, or reincarnation, and in what they call the law of karma. Under this law the conditions of each new lifetime are determined by the actions of the preceding life. To the Hindu, salvation consists of liberating the soul from attachment to secular desires in order to gain union with Brahman. If a Hindu dies liberated he must be born again into this world and again endure its suffering.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Evolution of Management Thinking Essay Example for Free

Evolution of commission Thinking EssayIt was an duration where so many alterations in the world Economy took place. In the closing decades of the 19th century thither was a quest of seeking innovative ways to increase physical compositional efficiency and effectiveness. The scientific Management possibility initiated on the basis of that. In this period of time crafts production was substituted by large factories in which a lot of technical revolutions have been taking place. The owners and managers were not capable of coping to these challenges therefore they hunt for advanced techniques to overcome this situation. As a solution the concepts of Job Specialization and division of labour came near. In this scenario workers who specialized in their respective tasks became more(prenominal) skilled.The scientific Management TheoryFredrick W. Taylor was the architecture of the concept Scientific Management, The constitutionatic study of traffichips between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency. It was believed that the nearly effective and efficient division of labour could best be determined by the concept of Scientific Management. there were four core principles in this concept.* Investigation and experimentation on organization mathematical operation* codification of new methods/standards* Selection of employees according to codified standards* Establishing a level of performance and a pay system with rewardsIn 1910 most of the organizations were using this concept but selectively. Even though there was an increase in performance some disputes about this concept lead to an increase in trade union involvement. There were some major issues in this concept.* Availability of fewer jobs* Job dissatisfaction* Distrust among employees and employers.Some organizations redesigned the principles according to their vision. For warning introduction of moving conveyer belts in Henry Fords factory stub be take n in to consideration. However these approaches were not able to acquit the emerged issues. Nevertheless Taylors work had a lasting effect on management production systems. Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth who were the successors of Taylor studied how the working milieu influences the performance of the employees. They made a heavy contribution in time-and-motion study. They demonstrated that by following arrangements organizations can solve their issues effectively.* Breaking up each(prenominal) job action into its components.* Finding better ways to perform the action.* Reorganizing each job action to be more efficientAdministrative Management TheoryResearchers attempted to gather up how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Theory of Bureaucracy was developed by goo Weber as a succession of these researches. Bureaucracy is basically a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effecti veness. There were several(prenominal) principles in this theory.Weber identified several factors there should be in a bureaucracy system. Simultaneously Henry Fayol identified 14 principles that should be vital to increasing the efficiency of the management process according to his perspective. These studies of Fayol and Weber laid the foundation of moderne management theory.Behavioural Management TheoryThis is the study of how managers should behave in order to motivate employees and promote them to strive towards high levels of performance as an organization. In the previous theory there wasnt a major concern about the employee viewpoint. Thus Mary Farker Follett explained why it is important to think about the tender-he finesseed side of management. According to the studies of Follett managers should behave as coaches and facilitators not as monitors and supervisors and the magnificence of direct inter parley between managers of different departments to discombobulate spee dy decisions. She also promoted the concept of cross functioning which has been used in a great scale at present. Hawthorne effect is the discovery that a managers behavior and leadership approach can affect the level of performance of employees.From this study emerged the concept of human relations movement. It is basically how the supervisors should be behaviourally trained to spice up workers motivation, cooperation and increase their productivity. Informal organization is one of the implications of Hawthorne effect. This is the system of behavioural rules and norms that come out in a group. The study of factors that have an usurpation on how individuals and groups react to in organizations has been identified as the organizational behaviour. Apart from these mentioned here the most momentous approach was developed by Douglas McGregor. He supposed two different sets of assumptions which were named as Theory X and Theory Y.Management Science TheoryThis is a modern extension of Scientific Management Theory in this approach describes how precise quantitative techniques can be used in order to make the best use of organizational resources. Quantitative management emphasises on how arithmetic can be manipulated to master best practises in inventory and financial capital hold back. Operations management presents a set of techniques that can be utilized to improve production efficiency Total quality management focuses on the art of how the whole can be managed to achieve excellence. Management information systems provide the managers with adequate information about internal and external events of an organization to effective decision making.Organizational Environment TheoryThis is the set of conditions and forces that functions externally to the organization but affect a mangers capability to acquire and utilize resources. This understandably stresses on how important it is to study the environment. The open systems theory and contingency theory developed in 1960 ascertains the importance of the importance of studying the environment.The Open Systems ViewThis is a system where external resources are acquired and converted into goods and go then sent back to customers for purchasing. And the cycle carries on. This system is considered as an open system. Organizations which use a unlikeable system are likely to experience entropy, the tendency of a system to lose its ability to control itself and thus to dissolve and collapse.Contigency TheoryIt discloses that there is no best way to organize therefore characteristics of the environment affect an organizations ability to obtain resources.Types of structuresAbove describes the differences between the structures. In conclusion managers in a Mechanistic structure can obtain inputs at a lower cost kind of in a stable environment and managers in an organic environment can react more quickly in a rapidly changing environment. These contributions constructed the foundation of modern manageme nt theories.ReferencesNew age of Management Concepts and Applications 2nd EditionRichard L. Daft, Vanderbilt UniversityContemporary Management fifth editionGareth R. Jones, Texas A M UniversityJennifer M. George, strain University

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Victory at a price Essay Example for Free

Victory at a price EssayI ran my clear pale hand shaking in the bitter winter wind, gently pop his left hinder(prenominal) leg. It felt up smooth and strong, there was no sign of the recent injury. I felt a expectant sense of relief. It was going to be alright. capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of Luxembourg turned his head with a bloodless blaze fell it to his mouth, towards me and gently moved his big hooves out of my way. He seemed to sense that I was nervous and touchy. It was the night so peerlessr the big race. I sighed deeply I stood to lose everything, the stables, the provides and the staff. We had non made any money for much(prenominal) a long time. Our lives depended on winning the second race tomorrow at Kempton set.I woke up to the early morning sun streaming with my upstairs bedroom window. I was eager and sore but I quiesce had some concerns that in a couple of hours, when the race finishes, he would sum back safe and sound but I would be over the moon if Luxembourg was to win. It was not to long before I drove the enormous supply box, fifty five miles up to Kempton Park Racecourse on the outskirts of London, where he would be having his showtime unknot on the Racecourse just sexual climax two years Monday week. I was just going through the gate which said Horseboxes in big, overvaliant and black writing engraved on the white board next to the gate.I had to show the certification pass to get through. Every part of my body was trembling and shivering with anxiety and hope that Luxembourg the cute and chocolate coloured would come back safely and we would get a big run out. I was hoping in a few hours time all my hard work with staff with this horse would pay off today with a place or a win. I was shivering, I was exploitation rattyer and colder with hope, but most of all anxiety, I had now got Goosebumps running up my arms and legs, everywhere. A cold anxiety filled hour of bitter coldness has just p assed I walked the horse out into the pre line of battle ring.I ordain the saddle on tightly so it would not move as he was running the race. He was number 9, it was my lucky number, I model could this be my lucky day today. Luxembourg and I walked round the pre expose ring a couple of times before we went into the dreaded parade ring. The atmosphere was electrifying. There were a couple of 100 people ceremonial us, only us in the pre parade because all the other entrants had already made their way to the parade ring. My heart was in my mouth. We walked through the plastic gates through to the parade ring. There were a couple of thousand people watching us because we were the last horse to go through.I could feel Luxembourg tensing up and scared, there were scores and lots of people watching him. We walked round and round the huge parade ring. I heard a voice faintly he said number nine looks fit and healthy. I thought to myself that moldiness be a good sign if other people th ink he is fit. The first chime rang deafeningly, it meant the jockeys were to come out and mount up onto the horse. Paddy came out jogging he came over and talked to us. He said Go from the front, see how it goes. I went over to the horse with Paddy, I gave him a leg up, and we were the first mounted up.I walked out to the course holding the horse reigns as if I was walking a dog. I said Good Luck to Paddy and let the reigns go. Luxembourg was off, his glistening coat showy in the beaming bright sun. His picturesque face standing out with the long and lovely white blaze standing out on his chocolate coloured coat. He made his way worst to the 2 mile start by Swinley Bottom. I went to my place high up in the long stand in front of the massive course I was surrounded by about film million people watching the race. I was shivering and trembling.Theyre off Luxembourg went off in the lead by about ten lengths clear of the rest of the horses. A mile gone Luxembourg still in the lead but the rest of the field have just come back to him. As Luxembourg came past the winning post for the first time, I shouted as loud as I could COME ON PADDY. He was going the best out of the other eight who were being nudged on a touch. He jumped the next two down at Swinley Bottom as if he was saltation for fun. It was all going well I thought to myself. The next indicate came the field of nine were bunched together. Luxembourg was still first. He jumped the next extremely well.The second horse fell and brought down the third and fourth. The ordinal horse refused the fence. There was six left. Luxembourg was left three lengths clears of number 2 who was 8 lengths ahead of the remainder who were weakening rapidly. Paddy decided to kick on, He began to get tired, he came to the last fence of sixteen. He was extremely tired, he clattered the fence. The second was closing in on him on the run in. Luxembourg was idling in front. He went one way and then the other. Paddy gave him a few slaps down the neck. One hundred metres left, one furlong until the end. The second horse came closer, closer, and closer.The race went to the judge. A few minutes wait, I was trembling, shivering and Goosebumps went everywhere. The judge spoke first number 9 Luxembourg, Second Number 2 Kauto Star. I went down to pick him up, I whispered to Paddy Well Done. He was delighted. I walked him into the winners enclosure. I felt that Luxembourg was not walking as fit as usual. He was limping we thought something moldiness be wrong with him. He just about got into the winners enclosure. I asked the veteran soldier to look at him. The vet said he had to be put down, he could not live another hour. He was put down. I fell to the ground in complete shock.I was in tears. A puddle construct up on my face. I was sweating, shivering but most of all distraught. My staff, family and I were distressed and depressed. He was the best horse I ever had for the thirteen years we have been running the stable. I thought to myself, no one can ever replace Luxembourg, he was a superior, excellent and energetic horse that will never be forgotten and always have a place in our hearts. represent preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Wireless Technologies Proposal Essay Example for Free

radiocommunication Technologies Proposal EssayWireless technologies include both wireless devices, such as smart prognosticates, and wireless transmission media, such as microwave, satellite, and radio. These technologies be fundamentally changing the flairs organizations operate and do business. Individuals ar finding it convenient and productive to practice wireless devices for several reasons. First, they can make productive use of prison term that was formerly wasted (for example, plot commuting to work on public transportation). Second, because they can support these devices with them, their work locations are becoming practically more flexible. Third, wireless technology enables them to allocate their working time around personal and professional obligations. The first recommendation ordain be Wireless Fidelity (or Wi-Fi), which is a medium-range wireless local area lucre (Wlocal area network), which is basically a wired LAN but without the cables. In a typica l configuration, a transmitter with an antenna, called a wireless access point, connects to a wired LAN or to satellite dishes that provide an internet society.A wireless access point provides service to a number of users within a small geographical perimeter. Wi-Fi will provide fast and easy Internet or intranet broadband access from anywhere in the office offices. Users can access the Internet while walking around the office. In addition, users can access Wi-Fi with their laptops, desktops, or PDAs by adding a wireless network card. Most PC and laptop manufacturers incorporate these cards directly in their PCs. Second recommendation will be carrellular tele mobilizes or smart phones, and tablets cellular telephones use radio waves to provide two-way communication. The cell phone communicates with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic areas called cells. A telephone message is contagious to the local cell by the cell phone and then is passed from cell to cell until i t reaches the cell of its destination. At this final cell, the message is either transmitted to the receiving cell phone or is transferred to the public switched telephone frame to be transmitted to a wireless telephone.This is why you can use a cell phone to call both other cell phones and standard wireless phones. Cell phones a great way to for your employee to communicate around the office and as well outside during business sales. wise(p) phones supports videos web browsing, and sec messaging. Some disadvantage will be that some plans are relatively expensive, and most carriers limit how much you can download and what the service can be used for. For instance, some carriers prohibitdownloading or stream audio or video. If you go beyond the limits, the carriers reserve the right to cut off your service. Smart phone are good for on the go. When in-between meets or at work, with a smart phone are can access emails, the internet, and just about anything else. Smart phones can ha ve access to banking, calendars, and other app that is needed. Smart phone come in different sizes and colors.With a tablet you can have it with internet go or not. Tablet can do just about anything you want it do. There are programs that stop you to type papers, read, and recorded any video that is needed. Tablets are small and weigh just about nothing, so there easy to travel with. Tablet can range from any size on the imbue to any size for memoir. We believe these two devices would work for a small company, because they are cost in force(p) simple to work on the go. The risks that you take in wireless technologies is if you use a network that is not security enabled there is a chance of somebody else being able to access your information. It also gives the owner of the network to see what pages and different activities that have been being done on that network. There are risks ilk that, but that would mostly happen when using a hotspot or WiFi that has an open connection to the public.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay Example for Free

backstop in the Rye by J.D. Salinger EssayIn The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, the author takes us on a journey with Holden Caulfield, a sixteen-year-old boy, going in and out of many boarding schools. When he gets kicked out of Pencey the story begins. In timidity of coming home to his parents, Holden takes a trip to New York which leaves him at the point of mental, physical, and emotional insanity. As the romance goes on his obsession with retentivity children from losing their purity grows. The gravid world seems fake, and Holden does not respect people who do the transition. In Gerald Rosens A Retrospective Look At The Catcher In The Rye he explores Holdens connection to other characters in the book. He also analyzes the difficulties in crossing over to the adult world. Holden qualms the crossing over due to the fact that losing geniuss innocence will force hotshot to face reality, and will at times cause adults to fall into a deeper hole.Holdens mania of keep ing children from transitioning to adult hood shows all throughout The Catcher in the Rye. Rosen explains that during the period of time Holden was in the museum he made it known that everything always stayed the same. The purpose of the glass cases acts as a defense against touching, or tainting. wish the children in the museum, to shelter the innocent, the catcher must strictly refrain from touching he must yet leave them alone (Rosen). This moment in the book compares the protected artifacts to the innocence of a child. He feels that if the children had soul to protect them from getting affected (touched) by the hard and cruel times in sustenance they could hold onto their purity for as long as possible. Holden expresses the fact that he wants en accredited security and perceptual constancy during these times in life.This point seems to be the first point in the novel where Holden shows a proclivity to keep children from corruption. Anyway, I keep picturing all these kids playing some game in the plumping field of rye and allWhat I cod to do, I have to catch everybody if they start going over the cliff (Salinger 173). Holden wants to catch the kids from their transition into an adult. He does not want them having to deal with losses they will have to overcome in life. He believes that going into adulthood marks the point where society shows its true face.Since Allie, Holden familiars, death he sees how reality twists and warps in sick ways. While walking around the museum he sees profanity. I went down by a different staircase, and I saw another Fuck You on the contend. I tried to rub it off with my hand again, but this one was scratched on, with a knife or something. It wouldnt come off. Its hopeless, anyway. If you had a million years to do it in, you couldnt rub out in time half of the Fuck You signs in the world. Its impossible (Salinger 173).When Holden see those words written on the wall he realizes that the youth has already gone through exposure to corruption and cannot go backwards. Holden now understands his softness to save the children from falling, growing up.Since Holden has spent most of his time refraining other from going into adulthood, he did not see how much he himself has fallen. Holden has many similar qualities to a designer classmate, James fortification. Holden is identified with Castle by Castles having killed himself while wearing Holdens sweater and by Castles appearing just before Holden on the roll call and school. This carries the implication that Holden maybe next in line for Castles death (Rosen). James Castles way of and to death influenced Holdens view of life. He suddenly became ostracized in society surrounded by a bunch of phonies. conclusion was the start and end of Holdens loss of innocence.Holden never truly had an adult figure in life. His parents separated themselves from him, in times of his need. Feeling like he needed to communicate with someone he called his former teache r, Mr. Antolini. Holden wants to catch children from falling, where as Mr. Antolini wants to save Holden from a rough way down. I have a touch that youre falling, a terrible,terrible fall (Salinger 186).Mr. Antolini says this because ever since Allies death Holden has had a series of falls. Even though Allie was younger than Holden, he idolized him and thinks very highly of him. Mr. Antolini symbolizes Holdens loss of Allie, loneliness, and inability to posess self-esteem.Holden wants to provide amends for children so they do not experience the reality of society and from falling into a deeper hole. Making sure he succeeds, he does everything to keep them from going over the edge. Holden grows up through the novel, and realized that losing ones innocence in is an unavoidable part of life. In this stage of life one makes the most mistakes and learns from them. If one never went through experience necessary to grow into an adult, they would seem very nave and easily taken advantage of. People that have gone through the difficult crossing over want to protect children from the hard-ships.Works CitedRosen, Gerald. A Retrospective Look At The Catcher In The Rye. American Quarterly 457-462Salinger, J.D. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston Little, Brown, 1951.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Biodiversity and Forests Essay Example for Free

Biodiversity and Forests EssayProtection and conservation of woodlands and hazardouslife atomic number 18 essential to maintain the earths health and purlieu. The earth is the only known living artificial satellite and it is because of its special environment and ecology which be life-supporting. Forests argon part and parcel of our environment. They are one of the much or less valuable resources and gifts of nature. They play a key role in the maintenance climate, rain-patterns, water and soil conservation. They are the natural home of oft type- of animals, birds, reptiles, insects etc. They supply tint, fuel, medicines, and wood for peeper-pulp and raw materials for many industries. The increasing depletion and desolation of wildlife is a source of great concern. One out of e re tout ensembley seven persons of the world live in India. India has 16 per cent of the worlds population with only 2. 4 percent of its land area. there is much pressure on our natural resour ces including forests. In these times of increasing consumerism and nature- hostile activities, the forest-cover is depleting and deteriorating very fast.The conservation of wildlife which includes native plants and animals, depends on protection of forests. foolishlife is the direct product of the land resources and habitat conditions. The neglect of forests moans the destruction of the wild animals. Wildlife, like we human beings, need food, water, and shelter. Destruction of forests, wetlands, marshes, points, grasslands etc. eliminates their sources of food, water and habitat. The National wildlife action Plan launched in 1983 provides the framework of strategy as well as programme for conservation of wildlife.The protected area interlocking till 1 993 consisted of 75 national parks and 421 sanctuaries covering 4. 5 per cent of the total geographical area, which was proposed to be increased to 5. 1 per cent. The wildlife protection Act, 1972 governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species. The Act prohibits trade in rare and endangered species. India is a signatory to the Convention on International Trade of threaten species of Wild Flora and Fauna. Under this export or import of these endangered species is subject to strict control. Commercial using such species is prohibited.The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 has been suitably amended to make the provisions more effective. Endangered species of plants and animals have been brought under the purview of ten acts. India is very rich both in flora and wolf but many plant and animal species are already extinct and many other(a) are on the road to extinction. In spite of various acts and rules- regulations against exploitation of wildlife, the real conservation has one of the study wildlife producer counties of the world and yet there is a skeleton staff to safeguard the interests of wildlife.Poachers are on the prowl even in sanctuaries and protected forest areas. They have become f ertile hunting intellect for illegal hunting and killing of animals. The rich and influential people and traders in, animal-skins, horns, etc. have been indulging in hunting, killing and trading of wildlife with impunity. They carry telescopic rifles and other weapons, use traps and poison food and kill the animals. As a result of ecological imbalances and depleting forest-cover, the wild animals come out at night in hunt of food in the hamlets and attack human beings and domestic animals and fowls.In some parts of Uttar Pradesh the hyena and wolf-menace was very much in the news. Many children were killed by the wolves and hyenas. Similarly, in Pauri Garwal district of UP some leopards turned into man-eaters. face up with the scarcity of animals for prey in the forest and continuing attacks from poachers, they become man- eaters. And once a man-eater is invariably a man- eater because man is the softest target. On many an occasion, the villagers injure more animals then they ki ll and so the injured animals turn into man-eaters and attack villages at night for food.When a human kill takes place, every leopard or tiger is regarded as man-eater and there is indiscriminate killing consequently, the number of these felines is decreasing fast. Thousands of snails, frog, rats, earthworms, cockroaches and other animals are killed for dissection in schools, colleges and laboratories for experiments. Snakes are also killed indiscriminately out of ignorance as greed. This destroys and disturbs the fragile ecological balance. Tigers are subjected to upper limit brutality by man, the most intelligent and evolved animal on the earth. There is mindless destruction of forests for timber, firewood and fuel. any year there is a loss of about 1. 3 hectares of forest area in India because of heavy(p) and indiscriminate clearing of forests for cultivation, quarrying and large dams and irrigation projects. Then there is intensive and indiscriminate logging for moneymaking(pr enominal) purposes by contractors and timber-merchants. Over-grazing has also taken its toll. The result is serious ecological imbalance and environment degradation. There is much pressure on forests and the relation between men and forests has reached the lowest depth. Conservation of forests and wildlife is also important from esthete point of view.They make life beautiful and colourful. Without them human life will lose much of its beauty, tour and meaning. Their proper protection and conservation also means a continuous and adequate supply of food, fodder, medicines, timber etc. Forests and wildlife and renewable resources which need to be diligently protected, preserved and increased in a plan way. There is a need to spread the a state of wareness about forest and wildlife conservation. Social forestry can be taught in schools as a subject. More and more trees should be planted, protected and seen growing and maturing.There should be a ban on mobile zoos and animal rights ac tivists should come forward to wage a war on behalf of the mute and innocent animals. The destruction and degradation of forests in upper reigns like Himalayas causes such other ruins as erosion of top soil erratic rainfall, and recurring floods. Deforestation is a great fond and national evil and should be checked on priority basis. It results in loss of productivity and environment degradation among much other harm. Encroachment on forests should also be checked and, if possible, banned, Non government agencies, village communities trials etc. hould be involved in social forestry and regeneration of degraded forest lands. They should be allowed to share the benefits of these schemes in a judicious manner.The forest and wildlife conservation laws should be made more stringent and practiced scrupulously. Veerappans continued bloody trade in ivory and sandalwood trade upsets all concerned. Throughout the Nilgiris, it is now almost impossible to spot a large tusker. The full blown d ishonour on forest and wildlife saddens all the Indians and wildlife lovers in foreign countries.

Monday, April 8, 2019

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by R. L. Stevenson Essay Example for Free

The other shift of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by R. L. Stevenson EssayWhile Stevensons Jekyll and Hyde is a reflection of the times in which it is set in, it withal has con fountrable relevance for the sophisticated reader. Do you support?The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by R. L. Stevenson was first published in 1886, during the puritanic era. The novel gives the reader a very vivid picture of the caprices and life historystyles of the people in that time. The book is a reflection of times and has considerable relevance for the modern reader.I parti entirelyy agree with the item that the book has relevance for the modern reader.Stevensons main inspiration for The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde came from the life of deacon William Brodie. He moved easily among the gentry during the day and exalted in criminal escapades at night. He was a respect member of the Town Council, and his talents as a cabinet-maker were well known and appreciated by wealthy members of society. By night he roamed the dark and dangerous streets of Edinburgh. He frequently visited many a(prenominal) drama and whore signalings. His life was one of great interest at the time, especially after his capture. The interest in Brodies life even inspired Stevenson to write a play about his life, this relates to the increasing interest in horror stories in todays world. The mystery of his death notwithstanding lingers, opus interest about his life continues to grow.In 1859, a book called On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin was published. The book inserted into the minds of the Victorian people that man had evolved from apes. therefrom we see the frequent references to Mr. Hydes animal characteristics through out the book. The author makes Mr. Hyde seem less than a to the full evolved man, more akin to animals than the rest of mankind and he portrays this through the mental imagery of Mr. Hydes animalism. When Mr. Utterson first confronts him outside the lab entrance to Dr. Jekylls house, he is said to be taking in breath with a hissing sound, same(p) that of a snake being cornered. Poole, Dr. Jekylls justler, describes his cry like that of a rat and his movements like a play his screams atomic number 18 described as mere animal terror.In his Full Statement of the Case Dr. Jekyll says that his cushy life which was chained down, began to growl, just like an animal that has been chained down for a long time. He also says that his dual personality is like the animal indoors me licking the chops of memory. The Victorian readers would be very familiar with these descriptions of people. But a modern reader wouldnt agree with the fact that man had evolved from apes as light has recordd that isnt so. But we do see the animal in man taking over our actions, as we tolerate seen the inhuman treatment delivered to soldiers by their fellow soldiers in the World Wars. Suicide bombers and terrorist attacks too atomic number 18 moder n actions depicting the beast in man taking over the human personality.The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde also reflects the hypocrisy of the Victorian era. Being an MP, his death would harbor aroused a lot of low density among the people. By assisting Mr. Utterson, Inspector Newmans name would be made popular, especially if he found the criminal. Hence while he valued help bring the MPs murderer to justice, he was also doing it to better his schoolmaster name. This attitude reflects human nature. Every person has an evil side to their nature, Mr. Hyde reveals this side of our nature to society. By deficient to kill him, Poole, Mr. Utterson and the father of the girl who was trampled upon, were unconsciously rejecting and killing a part of their true selves and are unconsciously inculpatory of hypocrisy.This form of hypocrisy is still common today, where people know that they are doing is wrong notwithstanding choose to deny the fact and continue with their actions. T hese men knew that there was an evil side to their nature but choose to ignore the fact. The newspaper publisher of hypocrisy is seen in the maid that Dr. Jekyll had employed in the Soho house, which was to be Mr. Hydes home, as she was known to be silent. But when Mr. Utterson and Inspector Newman arrive after the murder of Sir Danvers to inspect the house, she seems delighted with the fact that her master is in trouble, A flash of joy appeared upon the womans face..Dr. Jekyll is one of the best examples of hypocrisy in the book, as he fails to accept that the evil side of his nature was a natural part of his personality this defense reaction led to his meltdown. He also had two faces or rather wore a public mask, which portrayed him as a very charitable and kind man. While in private he was committing murder and trample on little children for no reason. We too are guilty of hypocrisy. We use people who are weaker than us to our benefit just abouttimes our denial of certain fact s causes us too to be guilty of hypocrisy, and at times can lead to our defacement.Stevensons book looks at the duality of human nature, the good and evil sides which are within all of us. The author is analysing the consequences of emphasising too much of one side or another of our nature. The floor of duality in mans nature is predominant in the novel. The theme is a very powerful description of the nineteenth century contradiction of outward respectability and inward lust, it also played a major purpose in the authors life. We see the theme being depicted in Dr. Jekylls attempts in separating the two elements of a persons nature. This theme is mainly seen in the characters of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekylls public image was one of a respected physician and chemist, someone who was respected by everyone he came in contact with. He was born into a prosperous family and hence had a good education.He would also be a man of exalted civility and with good taste. If Dr. Jekyll was to unleash his evil side, people would have been taken aback with his behaviour, as there was a certain power point of behaviour that had to be maintained among high ranking members of society, like himself. In order to avoid this marring, he created Mr. Hyde. When unleashed Mr. Hyde committed some very evil crimes. The author gives us details of only two of these incidents. The first, where he trampled over a little girl for no reason and walked away. Leaving her wounded and helpless on the street. The second, the murder of Sir Danvers Carew. The theme of duality in a persons character, is universal. People are always trying to underwrite their true selves out of fear that they may not get accepted into society, because peoples individuality isnt respected.People are expected to be just like someone else. The images of the street that Dr. Jekyll lived on also contribute to the theme of duality. The street is described to have freshly painted shutters, well- polished brasses and general cleanliness and gaiety of note, instantly caught and merry the eye of the passenger. Two doors from one corner, on the left hand going east, the line was broken by the entry of a court and just at that point, a sinister block of building contract forward its gable on the street. The structure is said to have no window, nothing but a door on the lower storey and a blind forehead of discoloured wall on the upper.. The offend section of the street is the entrance that Mr. Hyde used, while Dr. Jekyll used the main square entrance. Today too streets have two natures. In the day it may be a street with thriving trade, but when sin falls the trade becomes acts of crime.The lack of a leading leady in the novel represents the male dominant Victorian society. This contrasts with todays society, where the womans place and role is slowly rising from that of the home maker, to playing a role as pregnant as that of the male. In the Victorian era the woman was only supposed to hav e a family. As a member of the upper class then she would indulge in her hobbies for most of the day. Or as a member of the lower class she would hold the position of maid servant in the house of a member of the upper class. This idea juxtaposes with the modern idea of the womans place in society. Today women have se resumed positions in all fields of life.The modern reader give be very familiar with the idea that suppression leads to violence. We see this idea being portrayed in the novel as well. R. L. Stevenson also uses imagery to depict this idea and help the reader visualise the message he is trying to convey. We are told that all the windows in Dr. Jekylls house have iron bars on them. These are symbols of his self imprisonment. His interest in eccentric science, led to his close friend Dr. Lanyon to end their professional relationship to end, and caused their friendly bond to vaunt further.The Victorian societys constraints, that is the certain level of behaviour that a me mber of a prosperous family had to maintain at all times and Dr. Jekylls feelings of imprisonment motivated his dangerous experiments to create Mr. Hyde, or an evil twin as it would be known in modern days. When Dr. Jekyll prevents himself from turning himself into Mr. Hyde, the result of the suppression was his murdering Sir Danvers Carew. His denial of the fact that a persons evil side cannot be separated from their character, his experiments which showed that the two elements an be separated, and his unsuccessful attempts of preventing himself from taking the drug to interpret into Mr. Hyde causes his eventual destruction.The interest in anatomy and chemicals is also common in modern times. The man who own Dr. Jekylls house before him was a surgeon. Hence the presence of the laboratory. Dr. Jekyll was a chemist by profession, and his job was tie in to the human body. He wanted to prove that man is not truly one, but truly two. He wanted to separate the two elements, and house t hem in different identities and relieving the world of the intolerable.This idea is similar to that in Mary Shellys Frankenstein that is the idea of man playing God. This is a very common idea today as well, genetics is a fast growing industry as man wants to take the place of God. To prove this, he went about mixing drugs and concocted a potion that would change his appearance. This would enable him to unleash his evil side, without tainting his image and still maintaining his middle-class respectability. Todays interest in chemicals and the anatomy is to duplicate species and to aid procreation like the creation of clones to cure diseases and also to destroy life, like in the creation of bombs and poisonous gases.Addiction is another theme in the novel that has modern relevance. Dr. Jekyll was addicted to transforming into Mr. Hyde. He did it when he wanted to get away from the respectable life he was leading. He had grown bored with his life as an elderly discontented doctor and wanted to release the darker side of his personality through the use of a drug, to see what happened. Like all addicts he thought he was in control of his enslavement to the drug, as he once said to Utterson I can be rid of Mr. Hyde at any time. In reality if the compulsion isnt stopped as soon as it is started it begins to control the addicts life, and from then on theres no going back. With the stresses of living in todays modern world an addict will be able to relate to Dr. Jekylls addiction to the drug that would withdraw him from his high ranking member of society life and transform him into the evil, undignified Mr. Edward Hyde.The book has contributed to modern psychology theories. legal injury in modern psychology now consist of The Jekyll and Hyde personality.In my opinion Stevenson was undoubtedly aware that these issues were ones which many ordinary people of that time were thinking about. Most of the ideas have carried on through the centuries, though some have changed for example the attitude towards the womans place in society and the origin of mankind. Some social ideas will carry on through the centuries to come like, suppression leading to violence, the acts of hypocrisy that we are all guilty off, the increasing interest in chemicals and the anatomy and the undeniable fact that we all have an evil side to our nature and it accounts for only a small portion of our personality. Hence I hold a match view.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Winston Churchills Role in World War 2 Essay Example for Free

Winston Churchills Role in World War 2 EssaySir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, shortly cognise as Winston Churchill was born on the 30th of November 1874 to parents Lord and Lady Randolph Churchill. He was born into the aristocratic family of the Duke of Marlborough in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, two months prematurely.Winston is best known for his leadership during World War 2. He is regarded as one of the best war time leaders in the 20th century and served as Prime Minister to the United Kingdom twice, between 1940-45 and 1951-55. Winston Churchill was well known for being a national leader and orator but was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer and an artist. He is the only British Prime Minister to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature and was the first psyche to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States. Churchill gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.Churchill was big to Britain in World W ar 2 for many different reasons, mainly because he was just such a good leader and because of the choices he made whilst in power. One of the main reasons was that he gave the British public belief, belief that they would win the war and by making optimistic speeches he inspired them and told them what they unavoidable to hear. But as well as being this inspirational figure he was also quite harsh. He basically harassed the military commanders in the Middle East and North Africa for action and he gave them hell when they did not achieve the results he wanted. Field Marshall Alan Brooke spent most of the war battle Churchill, although they really got on really well It was his job to ensure that none of Churchills ideas saw the illuminate of day and he tried to shield the military from him.One of the major things that Churchill did, between 1940-41 was gain the expect of the United States. This was vital as Britain were essentially alone at resisting the Germans. It wasnt until then that he actually formed a war dodging. Churchill adopted two goals to defeat the Germans, and avoid unnecessary carnage. His grand strategy was to weaken Germany by attacking its more vulnerable borders, opening up new fronts in opposed sites. He wanted to make new allies like France and Russia to make the Triple Entente go forcing Germany and other central powers to rearrange their military and economic resources to their western defenses. He thought that an action that brought a new ally to the cause could be as important as an action that won a battle. Churchill believed this would allow a coordinated offensive that would overwhelm German defenses and break the stalemate of trench state of war and ultimately, end the war. Attacking the Germans on multiple fronts would weaken their most decisive one.On 15th of January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his London home nine age later, at the age of 90 on the morning of Sunday 2 4th of January exactly 70 old age after his fathers death. His funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that point in time, with representatives from 112 nations. Only Ireland did not broadcast the service live on television in Europe, where 350 million heap watching including 25 million in Britain. By the command of Queen Elizabeth II, his body lay in state for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Pauls cathedral on the 30th of January, 1965.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Dark Chocolate Essay Example for Free

Dark Chocolate EssayChemistry Central Journal brings even more costly news for hot chocolate lovers, stating that grisly chocolate contains more flavanols and polyphenols than fruit juice. Cacao seeds are a highly Fruit providing nutritive value beyond that of their macronutrient composition, said Dr Debra Miller.Chocolate and Blood PressureThe important affair is that the antioxidants in dark chocolate can significantly reduce blood thrust in patients with hypertension. concord to researchers from the University of Adelaide, flavanols promote vasodilation, which may consequently get blood pressure. There have, however, been conflicting results as to the real-life effects of ingest chocolate. Weve install that use of goods and services can significantly, albeit modestly, reduce blood pressure for people with high blood pressure but not for people with normal blood pressure. added Dr Karin Ried, who is program manager and research fellow of the PHCRED (Primary wellness Care Research Evaluation Development) program at The University of Adelaide. The analysis concluded that the pressure reduction caused by chocolate consumption was comparable to the effects of 30 minutes of daily physical activity.Chocolate and cirrhosis of the liverThere are also potential benefits for liver disease patients. Spanish scientists found that eating dark chocolate lowers blood pressure in the liver and reduces damage to the blood vessels of patients with cirrhosis.A study which was presented at the International Liver Congress 2010 divided 21 cirrhotic patients with end stage liver disease into deuce sorts. The first group received liquid meal containing dark chocolate, while the participants in the second group were getting liquid meal with white chocolate devoid of anti-oxidant properties. As a result, the patients receiving dark chocolate acquired a noticeable reduction of post-prandial increase in blood pressure in the liver. whiz Square Is EnoughHowever, it is not necessary to eat huge quantities of chocolate in set up to experience all the health benefits. In fact, just one small square a day may be enough to experience the health benefits chocolate is offering. A study performed in Germany that compared 19 357 individuals found that those who ate the most amount of chocolate (an average of 7.5 grams a day) were at a 39% lower risk of developing a heart attack than people with the lowest (1.7 grams) chocolate intakes. To put things into perspective, the sestet grams of difference are the equivalent of one small square of a typical 100g chocolate bar.Our supposal was that because chocolate appears to have a pronounced effect on blood pressure, therefore chocolate consumption would lower the risk of strokes and heart attacks, explains Dr Brian Buijsse from the German Institute of Human Nutrition, who led the research. Small amounts of chocolate may help to prevent heart disease, but only if it replaces other energy-dense food, such a s snacks, in order to keep body weight stable.

Ascorbic acid content of fruit juice Essay Example for Free

Ascorbic venomous content of proceeds succus tryOBJECTIVETo determine ascorbic acid content in a sample of output juice by using titration method with 0.001M 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, C12H7O2NCl2.INTRODUCTIONimage00.pngStructure of Ascorbic acidAscorbic acid, the chemical term for vitamin C, ar found course in fruits and green vegetables. It is a dietary requirement for normal metabolism, formation of collagen, wound healing, and tissue rep personal credit line. Ascorbic acid is often used as an antioxidant to help prevent throw in the towel radical damage in the skin, builds electrical resistance to infection, aids in the prevention treatment of the common cold, and aids in the absorption of entreat. Yet, vitamin C cannot be synthesized by the body, and take to be ingested. A lack of vitamin C can cause abnormalities of the spine, scurvy, and a cliff-off in the ability of the body to heal wounds.The determining factors as to whether organic substances can be res olute in an aqueous medium depend primarily on the functional groups that characterise the redox properties. The aspiration of ascorbic acid content is based on the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid C6H8O6 C6H6O6 + 2e- + 2H+image01.pngThe redox potential depends on the pH and without adequate buffering the pH at the electrode surface can be displaced by the oxidation reception of the ascorbic acid leading to peak broadening.Vitamin C is found in fruit drinks such as orangish juice and also other sources like vegetables, liver and kidney meat. Vitamin C in food can be destroyed by cooking, leaching out from fruits and vegetable during washing, and being oxidized when expose to the air. Thus, food that plentiful in vitamin C needs to be stored and prepared well.PROCEDURE1. Standardization of 0.001M 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol antecedent. 25.00mL aliquot of ascorbic acid solution was pipette into a 100mL conical flaskful. 0.001M 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol sol ution is titrated until a faint colour persisted for at least 15 seconds.The molearity of the dye solution is calculated by the result obtained.2. Ascorbic acid preoccupation of fruit juice is determined.5mL of fruit juice was pipette into a 100mL conical flask. 10mL of 5M acetic acid, 5mL of acetone (prevent interference of SO2) and 30mL of water was added, thence the mixture was allowed to stand for 5 minutes and titrated with 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol solution.3. CuSO4 and bubbling to air.2 flasks is set up and filled with 25mL of fruit juice in each flask. 1mg of copper sulfate is added to one of the flasks and both are put to bubbled air for 20 minutes. The titration is repeated at the completion of the 20 minutes of air bubbling.DCPIP is a chemical tangled used as a redox dye. This dye is blue in base (DCPIP-) and tap in acid (DCPIPH) and the pink form can be humbled by ascorbic acid to a dull form (DCPIPH2).image03.pngTitration with 0.001M 2,6- dichlorophenolindophe nol solutionReaction 1 DCPIP- (blue) +H+ DCPIPH (pink)Reaction 2 DCPIPH (pink) + Ascorbic acid DCPIPH2 (clear) +DehydroascorbateIf a drop of blue DCPIP dye is added to a low pH solution (pH4.0), it will trance pink (Reaction 1). If a suitable electron donor such as ascorbic acid is present in that solution, it will turn color slight (Reaction 2). When all of the ascorbic acid in the solution has been oxidized to dehydroascorbate, no more electrons will be available to reduce a drop of DCPIPH to the colorless form and the solution will remain pink (Reaction 2 will not take place). The end- compass point was a faint pink colour that persisted for 15 seconds.(http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/sosteacher/ apprehension/45432.shtml)Acetic acid added in Step 2 (iii) and Step 4 of the method will reduce the oxidation of the ascorbic acid by lower the pH of the orange juice to retard the action of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase. If the pH is reduced below 3.0, the polyphenol oxidase w ill be inactivated. Acetic acid also reduces interference from any iron present, and thereby facilitates subsequent clarification of the extract. Since the ascorbic acid is not oxidized, it was existed in L-enantiomer form. Therefore, the L-enantiomer form of ascorbic acid was determined in this experiment.( James , 1999 )(http//ag.udel.edu/other_websites/foodworkshop/WSFWorkshop/Enzymatic%20Browning%20(Ch2).htm)image04.pngFrom the experiment, the molarity of the ascorbic acid and the dye solution computed are 0.001134 mol/L and 9.8425 10-4 mol/L respectively. Hence, the concentration of the ascorbic acid in the fruit juice is 3.27mg/100ml which is much more lower compared to the criterion stated in the product label (Sunkist) in which the ascorbic acid content is 150mg/100ml. The high discrepancy mingled with these two values readiness be due to the oxidization of ascorbic acid, which was exposed to the oxygen for a extent of time due to the insufficient of apparatus in the lab oratory. This can be improved by not exposing ascorbic acid to oxygen, metals, light and heat, as it can be oxidized easily. Therefore, it must be stored in disastrous and cold and but not in a metal containment.The mechanisms of ascorbic acids abjection is comm whole due to the deed of metal ions and the heraldic bearing or absence of oxygen. The rate of oxidative degradation of ascorbic acids is commonly proportional to the concentration of ascorbate monoanion (HA-), molecular oxygen and the metal ion. It is known that uncatalyzed oxidation is essentially negligible but the presence of watch over metals in food are responsible for most of the oxidative degradations. The potency of metal ions in catalyzing ascorbate degradation depends on the metal involved, its oxidation state, and the presence of cheletors. For example, Cu(II) is about 80 times more potent than Fe(III) piece of music te chelate of Fe(II) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ETDA) complex is about 4 times mo re catalytic than free Fe(III). (Fennema , 1996)In this experiment, the potency of copper (II) sulfate in catalyzing ascorbate degradation was tested. One of the conical flask with only fruit juice act as control. It is titrated with 44.70ml of DCPIP for oxidation to occur. On the other hand, another conical flask with fruit juice and 1 mg of copper sulfate titrated with only 11.70ml of DCPIP for oxidation to occur. It is proven that the presence of metal ions responsible for accelerates the rate of degradation of ascorbic acid in an air-saturated fruit juice as less DCPIP is needed. During the step 5, bubbling through air is applied to the ascorbic acid to enhance the oxidation of ascorbic acid by the catalyst, copper. If not, it will consume a lot of time before the reaction can take place.Advantages2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol served as a good electron acceptor.DCPIP is used as the titrant because it only oxidises ascorbic acid and not other substances that might be present and i t acts as a self-indicator in the titrationIt is reasonably accurate, rapid, and convenient.Can be applied to legion(predicate) different types of samples.DisadvantagesThe end point of a titration for this reaction is difficult to ascertain due to the lack of make love decolourisation of the DCPIP.These methods are not specific or are not very sensitive.The reagent itself is not stable and needs standardization before use.If the sample solution is intensely coloured (fruit juice or syrup), end point detection will be difficult.Better choice for vitamin CAccording to the hypothesis, content of vitamin C in fresh fruit is suppose to be higher than commercial packet fruit juice. Due to a lot of processing, most of the vitamin C in commercial fruit juice are destroy.The fewer amounts of millilitres of juice it took to turn DCPIP from blue to clear, the larger the amount of vitamin C there was in the drink. Many of the commercial fruit juice are heavily fortified with vitamin C.Conclus ionThe molarity of the ascorbic acid and the dye solution computed are 0.001134 mol/L and 9.8425 10-4 mol/L respectively. The concentration of the ascorbic acid in the fruit juice is3.27 mg/100mL which is much more lower than the ascorbic acid content of the label product (15 mg/100mL). this might be due to the oxidation of ascorbic acid.Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is essential to humans. It is involved in the synthesis of collagen, which is the main constituent of skin, coincidence tissue, and the organic substance of bones and teeth. A deficiency of vitamin C results in a disease called scurvy. A quantity of 60 mg vitamin C per day is enough to prevent the disease, and this is the recommended daily dietary recompense (RDA).(http//a-s.clayton.edu/ptodebus/CHEM1211/lab/experiments/Vitamin%20C/Vit%20C%20titration%20v1.doc)REFERENCESCeirwyn S.James , 1999, Analytical Chemistry of Foods , An Aspen Publications , page 138,139Owen R. Fennema, 1996, Food Chemistry, Third Ed., Marcel Deeke r,Inc., pg 561,562http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/sosteacher/science/45432.shtmlhttp//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrievedb=PubMedlist_uids=7016874dopt=Abstracthttp//darwin.nmsu.edu/blyons/BCHE_397/VitaminC.htmhttp//www-saps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/docs/vitc.pdfhttp//journals.tubitak.gov.tr/chem/issues/kim-02-26-5/kim-26-5-8-0106-6.pdf pursuit=Determination%20of%20ascorbic%20acid%20by%20DCPIPIntroductionhttp//www.naturalhub.com/natural_food_guide_fruit_vitamin_c.htmhttp//ag.udel.edu/other_websites/foodworkshop/WSFWorkshop/Enzymatic%20Browning%20(Ch2).htmhttp//a-s.clayton.edu/ptodebus/CHEM1211/lab/experiments/Vitamin%20C/Vit%20C%20titration%20v1.doc

Friday, April 5, 2019

The Importance Of Photosynthesis

The grandeur Of PhotosynthesisTo understand the importance of photosynthesis, research is conducted to help determine which wavelength of return and waking military strength the chloroplast would generate the rosy-hot photosynthetic answer rate of photosynthesis. In plants, photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. The chloroplast absorbs the aerial cypher to convert to chemic get-up-and-go such as ATP AND NADPH. Photosynthesis is the process of converting carbon dioxide to thoroughgoing compounds, such as wide sugar, using the energy from sun stir up (Smith, A.L.). The chemical response equation of photosynthesis is as followed 6 C02 + 6 H20 + swooning Energy C6H1206 + 6 02There be a depend of limiting factors on the rate of reaction for photosynthesis. However, the purpose for this lab experiment is to pulse the light intensity and the wavelength. Light is a form of energy know as electromagnetic energy, likewise called the electromagnetic radiation (Campbe ll 190).The most important segment of the panoptical light is the narrow band range from 380 nm to 750 nm (Campbell 190). Pigments atomic number 18 substance that absorbs the visible light however, it may be also reflected or transmitted. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths (Campbell 190). Light emits a wavelength, the distance between the crest of electromagnetic waves, is inversely related to the amount of the energy the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of each photon of that light (Campbell 190). Chloroplast consists pigment chlorophyll that absorbs the light energy from the sunlight and drive synthesis of constitutional molecules (Campbell 186). In addition, plants also use some other pigment, such as carotenes and xanthophyll, to absorb different wavelength of the light. Chlorophyll absorbs violent-blue and red light while transmitting and reflecting green light, which gives pagination its color. Violent-blue and red light are the most useful color of the light spectrum to conduct photosynthesis, whereas green light is the least effective color (Campbell 192).Photosynthesis starts when the chlorophyll molecules are excited by the absorption of light. The chlorophyll molecules are organized along with other small organic molecules and proteins into photosystem (Campbell 193). The photosystem are composed of a protein complex called a reaction-center complex that is surrounded by several light-harvesting complexes, which contain various pigments that are embedded to the protein. In Photosystem II, light travels by means of the chloroplast and strikes a pigment molecule in the light harvesting complex. This excites the electron to a higher energy level and fall back dump to ground state. As the electron falls back down to its ground state, it stimulate a nigh pigment until this process reaches the reaction center called the P680, a pair of chlorophyll molecules in the Photosystem II reaction -center complex. The electron is then transfer to the primary electron-acceptor. As the P680 loses its electron, it is replace by the enzyme catalyzes the splitting of water molecules into deuce hydrogen ions and of oxygen in the thylakoids space. The oxygen atom immediately combines with other oxygen atom, forming O2, which was generated from the splitting of another water molecule. The excited electron from the primary electron-acceptor in PS II passes through the electron merchant vessels chain to the chlorophyll molecules, which is called P700, located in PS I. In the meantime, light energy travels through the light harvesting complex into the P700, which excited the electron, transferring the electron to PS I primary electron-acceptor. These electrons are passed on through electron acceptors that donate the electron to NADP+. The energy release drive the transfer of electron in an oxidation-reduction mechanism in which NADP+ is reduced to NADPH. Involving a redox reaction, oxidation is the loss of electrons from a substance, whereas reduction is the addition of electrons to a substance. The excess of energy from the oxidation-reduction process provides energy for the synthesis of ATP, which generates a proton gradient across the chloroplast membrane that is used in chemiosmosis. Overall, the light reactions are steps of photosynthesis to convert light energy to chemical energy, such as ATP and NADPH, in order to produce pieces of sugar in the Calvin cycle.In this study, we first separate and identify pigments within plants cells by a process called chromatography. We lead also study how several factors quantitatively affect the rate of photosynthesis. The factor that was runninged includes the light intensity and wavelength. Thus, we back tooth determine the effectiveness of the different pigments to absorb light to different wavelength and light intensities. The hypotheses are formed as followsH1 Violent-blue and red light would have a faster photosynthetic rate compa red to green light.H2 Light intensity is directly correlated with rate of photosynthesis.H3 Carbon dioxide is directly proportional to the amount of carbon present in the atmosphere.Materials and methodsChromatography is to separate and identify pigment within the plant cell which spinach leaves was use to conduct this experiment. using a paper chromatography of 14 cm wide by 16cm tall, a pencil course of study of 2 cm is findn from the bottom edge of the paper. Then apply the plant extract along the line to within 1 cm of each edge. Allowing the extract to dry each time, this process is repeated 10 times or more to ensure the pigment are on the chromatography. The paper chromatography is stapled into a cylinder at the bare edges and place into chromatography jar that contain a 15 ml solvent of oil colour ether-acetone. The chromatography jar is set under a vented-hood with the jar covered. This will allow the atmosphere inside to be saturated with the solvent. The solvent will move up the paper chromatography and carry the pigments along. Each pigment will move at different rate along the paper. The discrete pigment band will be formed from the front, which is the leading edge of the solvent, to the origin where the pigments were added to the paper. To determine the distance of each discrete pigment band, Rf ratio is used. The Rf is the ratio of the distance a band travels to the distance the front traveled (lab manual). The Rf equation is as followAfter the pigments are separated, each band will be pooled with other group and eluted into 10 cc of acetone. The unknown pigments from the each band are placed in a cuvette and place in a spectrophotometer. Four cuvettes were obtained and label as band 1, 2, 3, and 4. A spectrophotometer is used to measure the percent of each wavelength of light absorbed by the pigment (Campbell 190). Each band is measure at specific wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 680 nm. Thus, each of the bands is identify according to it s pigment by comparing its wavelength to the known standard wavelength.To determine at which wavelength of light and at which light intensity the chloroplast would generate the fastest photosynthetic reaction rate of photosynthesis, the floating leaf magnetic disk assay is use for this experiment. The wavelength of red, green, and blue light is test to determine the rate of photosynthesis. In addition, the effect of light intensity is determined by the distance of light (white) from the leaves. For each trail, a 0.2% of 300 ml atomic number 11 bicarbonate solution ( bake soda) is use as an substitute(a) dissolved source of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis by using 1/8 of a teaspoon of baking in a 300 ml of water (lab manual). Then a hole-punch is use to cut away 10 or more uniform leaf disks (avoid major veins). The air space of the leaf disks is infiltrates with the sodium bicarbonate solution, which the solution will cause the leaf disk to sink due to its increase in density. Infiltration of the leaf disks with sodium bicarbonate is as followedRemove the plunger and place the leaf disk into the syringe barrel.Replace the plunger and slowly push air out while being sleepless not to crush the leaf.With a small volume of sodium bicarbonate solution into the syringe. Tap syringe to fend off the leaf disks in the solution.While holding a finger over the syringe opening, draw back the plunger to create a vacuum for 10 seconds. In addition, swirl the leaf disks to suspend them in the solution. This procedure may be repeated 2-3 times in order to get the leaf disk to sink.After the leaf disks sink, pour the disk and the solution into a clear cup or beaker. A constant volume of bicarbonate solution is added and should be the same depth for each trail. stupefy the cup or beaker under the light source and start the timer. Each minute is to record the number of floating disk. In addition, dislodge any disks stuck against the sides of the cup by swirling the disk s. Continue until all of the leaf disks are floating.In addition, the presence of CO2 is measured.