Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The eNotes Blog 3 Memoirs That ReimagineIllness

3 Memoirs That ReimagineIllness With the proliferation of illness narratives in the late nineteenth century, many writer-turned-patients have used the written word to capture what it means to face their own morality. There are a lot of illness narratives out there that feel disingenuous or overtly sentimental- and truthfully, it’s hard to say if we can ever fully understand another person’s suffering or sickness- but we seek these stories out anyway, wanting to learn from someone else’s experiences, wanting to better understand the impact of illness on our lives and the people around us. The best stories don’t promise inspiration or even a transformational change by the end, but promise to deliver the truth with emotional clarity and insight. Humor, even. From de-mystifying disease to self-discovery, these three memoirs seek to re-imagine what a story about illness can and should be. 1. Autobiography of a Face  by Lucy Grealy This is a memoir to the body, to a disease that was never named to Lucy Grealy as a child- at least not until much later. Grealy’s memoir centers on her childhood experiences of undergoing several operations and years of chemotherapy treatments to remove a cancerous tumor in her jaw, and the subsequent pain of fitting in, of overcoming her fear of being unloved. â€Å"It was the pain from that, from feeling ugly, that I always viewed as the great tragedy of my life,† Grealy writes. â€Å"The fact that I had cancer seemed minor in comparison.† Page count: 256 Publish date: March 18, 2003 2. Illness as Metaphor  by Susan Sontag Written as a reaction to her own experiences with cancer, Sontag’s Illness as Metaphor can hardly be considered a memoir; in fact, Sontag rarely appears in the text. But her book, which argues for the elimination of unwanted metaphorical thinking from our responses to illness, is as personal as it is social commentary. Sontag relies on her background as a researcher and critic to debunk common metaphors using medicine, literature, philosophy, and politics to solidify her case. This must-read teaches us how we think about and talk about disease, an enlightening read for any healthcare provider, patient, family member, scholar, or student. Page count: 87 Publish date: August 25, 2001 3. Intoxicated by My Illness  by Anatole Broyard In his autobiographical account about life with prostate cancer, Broyard writes, â€Å"the sick man sees everything as metaphor.† As a New York Times book critic and editor, he uses humor and literature in this collection of essays as a way of dealing with his diagnosis., Through these essays, he also seeks to know: How does one articulate â€Å"the imaginative life of the sick† and do it well? Page count: 156 Publish date: June 1, 1993

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Puritans In Early America

When King Henry VII dissolved the Catholic Church and made the Church of England rendering the Pope powerless in all English affairs (Williams, 4), some people, non-conformists, were not happy. They were persecuted for practicing their religion, so when they found a chance to leave, they did. This first group of people had been living in self-exile in Leyden, Holland. They were known by 3 different names, their leader William Bradford called them Pilgrims, those who held them in contempt called them Brownists, and to King James and his court they were known as Separatists (Williams, 48). They were forced to leave England, because their complete and unchanging belief that religion should be completely free from government. They became tired of Holland, because of their poor worship of the Sabbath, and were ready to find a new place to live, but only 35 were brave enough to go to the America, they were joined by 66 people from London. Their desired destination is not known, but they ended up landing at Cape Cod. After some exploring surrounding land the Pilgrims chose Plymouth Rock as their permanent settlement (Williams, 52). Although the first year almost half of the population died, by 1632, 11 years after the beginning their population was up to 500. By the end in 1691 the population was no more than eight thousand scattered in several towns (Williams, 53). Puritans made many settlements and had trade routes in between the cities. Inside of the cities life was organized and run very strictly. The church was the government and controlled everything under strict rule. They believed punishment for everything should be death or shame. If you had beliefs other than what the church wanted you to have you would be thrown in jail, or banished. The church felt fear of God was the way to worship, and also felt that fear was the best way to run a community. Puritans, like all Protestants, believed in predestination; God, they declared, ha... Free Essays on Puritans In Early America Free Essays on Puritans In Early America When King Henry VII dissolved the Catholic Church and made the Church of England rendering the Pope powerless in all English affairs (Williams, 4), some people, non-conformists, were not happy. They were persecuted for practicing their religion, so when they found a chance to leave, they did. This first group of people had been living in self-exile in Leyden, Holland. They were known by 3 different names, their leader William Bradford called them Pilgrims, those who held them in contempt called them Brownists, and to King James and his court they were known as Separatists (Williams, 48). They were forced to leave England, because their complete and unchanging belief that religion should be completely free from government. They became tired of Holland, because of their poor worship of the Sabbath, and were ready to find a new place to live, but only 35 were brave enough to go to the America, they were joined by 66 people from London. Their desired destination is not known, but they ended up landing at Cape Cod. After some exploring surrounding land the Pilgrims chose Plymouth Rock as their permanent settlement (Williams, 52). Although the first year almost half of the population died, by 1632, 11 years after the beginning their population was up to 500. By the end in 1691 the population was no more than eight thousand scattered in several towns (Williams, 53). Puritans made many settlements and had trade routes in between the cities. Inside of the cities life was organized and run very strictly. The church was the government and controlled everything under strict rule. They believed punishment for everything should be death or shame. If you had beliefs other than what the church wanted you to have you would be thrown in jail, or banished. The church felt fear of God was the way to worship, and also felt that fear was the best way to run a community. Puritans, like all Protestants, believed in predestination; God, they declared, ha...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Does the SAT Predict Your College Success and Income

Does the SAT Predict Your College Success and Income SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You know it’s important for you to do well on the SATs because better scores will get you into a better college - top colleges want high SAT scores because they are supposed to indicate insight that a particular student is academically strong. Ultimately, a better college education is supposed to help you be more successful in your career. But do your SAT scores really speak to how competent or prepared you are as a potential student? And does a great college really increase your chances of professional success? These are tough, but important, questions - I’ll address them all here. First, I’ll talk about what the research says about the relationships between SAT scores, college success, and income. Then, I’ll present some explanations for why these factors are (or are not) related - it might not be for the reasons you think. So what’s the real relationship between your SAT scores, college success, and income? Why do these questions even matter? Read on to find out! What Are the Relationships Between SAT Scores, College Success, and Income? In these next sections, I'll talk about the correlations between SAT scores, college success, and future income. If there's a correlation between two factors or variables, that means there's a relationship between them - a positive correlation means that if one variable increases, the other variable will also increase.Causation is something a little different: if there's a causal relationship between two factors, it means one has a direct effect on the other. Just because there's a correlation between two factors doesn't mean there's a causal relationship. Still, though, the correlational relationships I'll discuss are important because they give us clues about how important some predictive factors are - for example, can high SAT scores predict future income? You're about to find out. SAT and College Success If you have high SAT scores, are you likely to get better grades in college? Perhaps unsurprisingly, most research studies find that your SAT scores do predict college success - to an extent. The relationship isn't particularly strong, which means that if you have high SAT scores, you're only slightly more likely to have higher college grades than a student who had lower scores. Research shows a similar relationship between SAT scores and high school grades. Given this relationship, it makes sense that colleges use the SAT as part of their admissions criteria.Schools tend to prefer students with higher SAT scores because they think that, in some small part, these scores could predict how well these students do in school. If schools accept students with higher scores and then these students are successful in college (and beyond), the schools will begin building a positive reputation. Ultimately, higher SAT scores might predict college success, but they'll more likely make you a more competitive college applicant. Keep in mind, though, that highand low scores are totally relative(read more about good and bad SAT scores). SAT and Income If you have high SAT scores, are you likely to earn more money after you graduate from college?There does seem to be a positive relationship between SAT performance and future income - that is, the better a student scores on her SAT, the more likely she is to earn more money later in life. One study found that high scorers not only went on to earn higher incomes, but they were also more likely to earn PhDs, file patents, and get tenure as a professor at a top university. Again, though, this relationship doesn't seem particularly strong. There are many other factors that better predict future income; not all Bachelor degrees pay the same. College Success and Income If you're more successful in college, are you likely to earn more later in life?To answer this question, I'm going to break "college success" down into two different parts: success as attending a top school, and success as earning a high GPA. Top Schools and Income If you end up at a top college, are you likely to earn more money than other college graduates? Students who attend top colleges tend to do pretty well. Top colleges are well-rated in the first place because they have good reputations, high graduation rates, strong undergraduate programs, and strong alumni networks. It would make sense that these factors would be related to greater income post-graduation. And that's exactly what the research shows: graduates of science/math-heavy schools and Ivy League schools tend to earn more than graduates of other colleges. Again, though, these are correlative relationships - you don't necessarily need to graduate from a top college in order to earn a lot of money.Simply getting a college degree is likely to significantly increase your future earnings. GPA and Income If you get better grades in college, are you likely to earn more money than students with lower GPAs? In general, students who do well in college tend to earn more after they graduate. This might depend on your field.Research has found that the difference in income between low-GPA and high-GPA graduates can amount to tens of thousands of dollars in certain careers. You might imagine that if many recent grads are competing for the same awesome job, GPA could end up a very important factor in hiring decisions. So yes, depending on your career path, higher grades are correlated with higher income. How Do All of These Factors Fit Together? It looks like SAT scores, college success, and income are all positively correlated. We can infer that higher SAT scores tendto predict greater college success, and greater college success tends to predict higher incomes later on. These relationships seem to generally fit what we expect.It's important to keep in mind, though, that these are relationships, not rules -just because someone has a perfect SAT score, for example, doesn’t mean that she will end up a millionaire. The real question is WHY these factors are related. Why do we expect high SAT scores→ better college → higher income? I’ll address the possible explanations in the next section. What's the Reason for the Relationships Between SAT Scores, College Success, and Income? What do you think leads to successful outcomes? There’s no empirically supported response to this question. Just because we can observe a relationship (correlation) doesn’t mean we can determine what’s driving it (causation). In this section, though, I’ll present some of the most plausible explanations for the reason behind these relationships. 1. A Better SAT Score Means You'll Get Into a Better College, and Attending a Better College Means More Opportunities for a Higher Income. This explanation is perhaps the most straightforward.Top colleges consider students more competitive if they have higher SAT scores - we know this to be true (although standardized test scores aren’t the only things that admissions officers consider). The better the school you attend, the more career opportunities are available to you. Here's an example to explain what I mean.Let's say we have two very similar students who attend high school together: same GPA, same list of extracurriculars, same AP courses. Student A studies for two months for the SAT and scores a 1500, whereas student B studies for one week and scores a 20.Although both display the same degree of talent and intellectual ability, Student A gets into an Ivy League college and student B doesn't. Student A has access to more career fairs and recruiters, and can utilize a stronger alumni network before getting her first job, ultimately making more money than Student B. She isn't smarter or more ambitious than her peer - she just has more doors open to her. With student talent (and even the fundamental quality of education) being equal between two people, the opportunities that come with a top college make it easier to earn a higher income after graduation. 2. If You're Naturally Smart, You'll Have High SAT Scores and Probably High Grades. This Means You'll Get Into a Better College and Have More Opportunitiesto Earn a Higher Income. This baby was born smart and happened to score a perfect 1600. This is the College Board's general position on the SAT exam: it's designed to be a totally fair exam that tests aptitude and critical thinking, not general knowledge or even test-taking strategy. Thus, smarter students should earn higher scores without too much practice or prep. Intelligent students will go on to have success in other areas (college applications, job searches) because they're naturally skilled. Some smart people are naturally good test-takers who can earn fantastic scores without much effort. But there are many smart students who don’t necessarily do well on the SAT at first. High school students who don't have much information on the exam, or don't have a strong foundation in core SAT content areas, are at a particular disadvantage (even if they're smart). Test-taking anxiety or unfamiliarity with the exam can significantly bring down the scores intelligent students. Ultimately, while natural smarts might lead to higher scores, many other factors (unrelated to intelligence) can bring them down. 3. If You Come From a Privileged Background, You've Had More Opportunities (Like a Better High School Education), Leading to a Higher SAT Score and Greater Chances for Future Success. Having resources available to you through childhood into adulthood definitely doesn’t make things harder. Students may be fortunate enough to hire a private SAT tutor, for example. Perhaps parents help ensure future success through their own professional connections.Many critics of the SAT endorse this explanation - they feel that for this reason, the SAT puts students from underprivileged backgrounds at a disadvantage, which isn’t fair. Research tends to support this explanation: one study, sardonically naming the SAT the "Student Affluence Test," showed that students from wealthy families tend to out-score students from low-income families by about 400 points. That's a huge margin, one that can make an enormous impact on the sorts of colleges that are within students' reach.While you don't need to come from a wealthy family to do well on the SAT, attend a top college, and earn a high income, it seems that low-income students are fighting an uphill battle. So Which Explanation Is the Right One? What's the right recipe for success on the SAT, in college, and even in your career? Like I mentioned at earlier points in this points, it's really difficult to establish causality when discussing the effects of different factors on future success. It's likely that the "right" explanation is some combination of the ones listed above. High SAT scores + natural smarts + privileged background might be the easiest recipe for future success, but it isn't the only one. There are some factors you won't have any control over - like your family background, or natural test-taking aptitude - but there are things you can do to bring up your SAT scores. And like I mentioned in Explanation #1, SAT scores seem to have the clearest connection to college success and income. I'll address strategies for maxing out your chances for future success in the next section. How Do You Set Yourself Up for Future Success If You're at a Disadvantage? Even an uphill climb can be made easier with the right tools. If you don’t consider yourself a natural test-taker, or if you don’t come from a privileged background, you might be nervous about the SAT. You know it determines (to some extent) what sort of college you can get into, and it tends to predict income. So what can you do if you want to give yourself the best chance possible at being successful? Self Study Work out of a book on your own, take practice tests, and review your wrong answers to improve your scores over a set timeline. The College Board Blue Book is a great place to start if you plan on studying on your own.PrepScholar's blog is also a great free resource for comprehensive, up-to-date content on studying for the SAT. However, this self-study strategy might not be the best option for students who tend to procrastinate or who lack motivation. Take an SAT Class SAT classes are great for an intro to the test, especially if you want to focus on learning strategy. These classes can help you get motivated, but they're not customized to your particular strengths and weaknesses. Get a Private Tutor A private, one-on-one tutor can be a great resource because you get a totally customized experience. It’s also very costly, and it can be difficult to find an experienced and proven instructor. Wyzant is a good place to start looking for tutors in your area - you can see how tutees have rated them in the past. Use PrepScholar's SAT Prep PrepScholar's program isaffordable, customized, and effective. Get more info on the SAT prep program. What's Next? Ready todo your future self a favor? You can start right now by checking out our guides to the SAT. The right sidebar includes links to some of our most popular guides and a list of topics to explore further. Beginners should start here by learning about good and bad SAT scores, and what scores they should be aiming for. Already an SAT expert? Maybe you'd be interested in Ivy League SAT scores, or a guide to getting the perfect score. Disappointed with your scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Francesca Fulciniti About the Author Francesca graduated magna cum laude from Harvard and scored in the 99th percentile on the SATs. She's worked with many students on SAT prep and college counseling, and loves helping students capitalize on their strengths. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Saturday, October 19, 2019

Bernard Madoff Investment Securities Scandal Research Paper

Bernard Madoff Investment Securities Scandal - Research Paper Example Born in 1938, former American stock broker, investment adviser, and non executive chairman of the NASDAQ, Bernard Madoff is believed to be one of the greatest frauds of all time. He was succeeded in cheating the public and the authorities for around 30 years using a Ponzi scheme. He was succeeded in adding one more new chapter to the fraud histories in the world. Anyone who is working in investment securities department in the world is now taking lessons from the innovative investment scandal anchored by Madoff. Madoff admitted that he has started his fraudulent activities in early in the 1990’s. However federal investigating agencies believed that he started his activities as early as in the eighties itself. â€Å"Madoff founded the Wall Street firm Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC in 1960, and was its chairman until his arrest on December 11, 2008† (Bernie Madoff’s Investment Scandal Exposed, 2010).The Wall Street firm took the investors by surprise because of the high and consistent short term returns offered to the investors. The Ponzi scheme offered to the investors by Madoff was attracted many investors because of its earning potential. A Ponzi scheme can be defined as a fraudulent investment operation which offers the investors high returns other investments cannot guarantee. Most of the other investment schemes in America are offering high returns on investments only if the investors invest their money for longer periods whereas the Ponzi scheme offers high returns to investments of even shorter period. This fraudulent investment operation pays returns to separate investors from their own money rather than from any actual profit earned. The offers put forward by Madoff through his Ponzi scheme were exciting which increased the traffic flow towards his offices. Investors started to invest heavily in this Ponzi scheme

Friday, October 18, 2019

Effective communication among nurses Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Effective communication among nurses - Assignment Example It is evident from the study that effective communication among nurses ensures proper understanding, avoidance of medical mishaps, as well as excellent performance of their duties. Based on the fact that nursing is collaborative, efficient communication among the various parties including patients, doctors and nurses cannot be unnoticed. In addition to prevention of health misapprehension, valuable nursing communication ensures customer satisfaction and trust. During their communication nurses should be specific. This implies that a nurse should converse essential information to other nurses, patients and doctors. In the same way, nurses should accurately respond to the questions from patients and other personnel. The primary benefit of effective communication among nurses is satisfaction of patients and perfection of health care system. Due to the wide range of duties that nurses undertake, it is paramount to emulate delegation of duties in order to improve nurse’s performanc e, as well as maximize the available human resources. During the delegation of duties, senior nurses should consider the abilities and the skills possessed by the assistant nurses. To ensure that the assistant nurses have the ability to deal with patients vital signs, nursing ethics depicts that senior nurses must provide that the results of the delegated duties are compliant with the nursing standards. In the same way, it is vital for nurses to make sure that individuals whom duties are delegated to follows the instructions as outlined. Supervision and support of the assistant nurses are other key requirements of the nursing ethics during delegation of duties. One of the major benefits of delegating duties to assistant nurses is that it enables registered nurses to undertake appropriately tasks that cannot be devolved. Even though, at the initial stages the time saved through delegation may not be reasonable, the gradual improvement of skills by the assistant nurses makes the saved time to be significant in the long-term. It is vital to note that rather than undertaking many nursing duties in an ineffective manner, nurses should focus on doing few tasks in an excellent way. In cases where the number of patients requiring closer attention is high, delegation of nursing duties ensures that every patient is effectively addressed. Through delegation, consultation among the nurses is attained, thus, leading to an effective communication system. Strategic planning To meet the needs of a nursing facility, it is imperative for managers to have an attainable vision. Additionally, managers should emulate strategic plans that are focused on attaining organizational goals within 2-5 years. Through development of a mission statement, an organisation gives the public and government authorities the actual picture of why it exists. In this regard, it is vital for managers to seek the input of other nurses in the review of vision and mission statement in case they are outdate d. Environmental assessment is a major step in strategic planning. This entails assessing the demographic profile of other workers, as well as members of the public served by the nursing facility. To make the services provided by the care centre relevant and attainable, hospital management team should take into

Transformational Leadership Atta ur Rehman Essay

Transformational Leadership Atta ur Rehman - Essay Example Even though knowledge is inadequate on what types of leaders are needed, there are a number of assumptions about leadership. Foe example, in an organization there is an assumption that leaders of organizational change should be both leaders and managers. Another assumption about leaders who change their organizations is that only administrators will be leaders. However this assumption that change comes only from individuals in top positions ignores the invisible leadership of lower-level staff members (Murphy, 1988). Vast studies of organizational leadership have been focused on leaders in administrative positions. These leaders begin with having a vision, develop a shared vision with their co-workers and value the organization's personnel. Leaders who change their organizations are proactive and take risks. They recognize shifts in the interests or desires of their clientele, anticipate the need to change and challenge the status quo. Transformational leadership has been found to be a significant factor in facilitating, improving and promoting the organizational progress of employees. Nevertheless, the data on leaders of organizational change and the emerging information on transformational leadership indicate that the characteristics of these individuals mirror those of leaders who have changed other organizations. Leaders of organizational change have vision; foster a shared vision, and value human resources. They are proactive and take risks. Vision to Change Organization Every type of leadership requires a vision. A vision is actually a force that provides meaning and purpose to the work of an organization. Leaders of change are visionary leaders, and vision is the basis of their work. To actively change an organization, leaders must make decisions about the nature of the desired state (Manasse, 1986). They begin with a personal vision to forge a shared vision with their co-workers. Their communication of the vision is such that it empowers the authority to people to act. According to Westley and Mintzberg (1989) visionary transformational leaders are dynamic and apply the following three stage process to create useful changes in their organizations. (a). They create an image of the desired future of the organization. (b). Communicate the vision to serve all. (c). Transformational leaders empower the followers so that they can enact the vision. For organizational leaders who implement changes in their organizations, vision is a hunger to see development (Pejza, 1985) as well as the force which forms meaning (Manasse, 1986). Leaders of organizational change have approach to display a clear picture of what they want to accomplish. Further they have the ability to visualize one's goals (Mazzarella & Grundy, 1989). In their vision, they present purpose, implication, and significance to the work of the organization and empower the staff to contribute to the realization of the vision. The American Association of School Administrators' (1986) description of leadership includes the leader's ability to translate a vision into reality as well as the skill to coherent the vision to others. According to Manasse (1986),

Thursday, October 17, 2019

What was the role of the media in the 2012 presidential elections Essay

What was the role of the media in the 2012 presidential elections - Essay Example The BBC monitoring group of the presidential election in Russia outlined the profiles of successful presidential candidates in the 2012 election. This move was meant to inform the public about the persons they were likely to elect into office. Key details presented were the lives, previous services, and eligibility factors for the five successful presidential candidates. In so doing, an assessment or evaluation concept emerges, where the candidates’ merit to the public can be prepared. This press document denotes one of the primary functions of the media towards the society. The ultimate objective is to have the media evaluate the relative political welfare in Russia. Trends in global politics have become deeply rooted in democracy. This democracy has subsequently resulted in the proliferation of diplomacy among world states. For the Discovery World, diplomacy is a diverse and dynamic concept. What this means is that approaches to diplomacy differ from one country to another. What constitutes effective and efficient diplomacy in Russia does not necessary do in the United Kingdom. This document, therefore, highlights interstate diplomacy, politics, and media engagement differentials. The idea is to mobilize the public to be more vigilant as they undertake their constitutional right of participating in presidential elections. Political outcomes are often uncertain and subject to criticism from different players in the public domain. This press file highlights arguments for and against the outcome of the Russian election of the year 2012. For the media, the primary focus is directed towards what observers said. However, the situation is different to the voters. Voters had five candidates to choose their president from. Whether or not the observers’ remarks were true, the voters reserved the secretion to elect the preferred president. Over and above the mere reporting of what